• Alberty, R. L., , Burgess D. W. , , and Fujita T. T. , 1980: Severe weather events of 10 April 1979. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 61 , 10331034.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersson, E., and Coauthors, 2005: Assimilation and modeling of the atmospheric hydrological cycle in the ECMWF forecast system. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 86 , 387402.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anthes, R. A., , and Warner T. T. , 1978: Development of hydrodynamic models suitable for air pollution and other mesometeorological studies. Mon. Wea. Rev., 106 , 10451078.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arakawa, A., , and Lamb V. R. , 1977: Computational design of the basic dynamical process of the UCLA general circulation model. Methods in Computational Physics, Vol. 17, Academic Press, 173–265.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Asselin, R., 1972: Frequency filter for time integrations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 100 , 487490.

  • Blackadar, A. K., 1979: High resolution models of the planetary boundary layer. Advances in Environmental Science and Engineering, Vol. 1, J. R. Pfallin, and E. N. Ziegler, Eds., Gordon and Breach, 50–85.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Courtier, P., , Thépaut J-N. , , and Hollingsworth A. , 1994: A strategy for operational implementation of 4DVAR, using an incremental approach. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 120 , 13671378.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deardorff, J. W., 1972: Parameterization of the planetary boundary layer for use in general circulation models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 100 , 93106.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dudhia, J., 1989: Numerical study of convection observed during the Winter Monsoon Experiment using a mesoscale two-dimensional model. J. Atmos. Sci., 46 , 30773107.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Errico, R. M., , and Raeder K. D. , 1999: An examination of the accuracy of the linearization of a mesoscale model with moist physics. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 125 , 169195.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gauthier, P., , and Thépaut J-N. , 2001: Impact of the digital filter as a weak constraint in the preoperational 4DVAR assimilation system of Météo-France. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129 , 20892102.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gérard, É, , and Saunders R. , 1999: Four-dimensional variational assimilation of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager total column water vapour in the ECMWF model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 125 , 30773101.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Giering, R., 1999: Tangent Linear and Adjoint Model Compiler. Users manual 1.4, 64 pp. [Available online at http://www.autodiff.com/tamc/document.html.].

  • Giering, R., , and Kaminski T. , 1998: Recipes for adjoint code construction. Assoc. Comput. Mach. Trans. Math. Software, 24 , 437474.

  • Grell, G. A., 1993: Prognostic evaluation of assumptions used by cumulus parameterizations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121 , 764787.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grell, G. A., , Dudhia J. , , and Stauffer D. R. , 1995: A description of the fifth-generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5). NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-398-STR, 122 pp. [Available from UCAR Communications, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307.].

  • Ide, K., , Courtier P. , , Ghil M. , , and Lorenc A. C. , 1997: Unified notation for data assimilation: Operational, sequential and variational. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 75B , 181189.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaminski, T., , Giering R. , , and Heimann M. , 1996: Sensitivity of the seasonal cycle of CO2 at remote monitoring stations with respect to seasonal surface exchange fluxes determined with the adjoint of an atmospheric transport models. Phys. Chem. Earth, 21 , 457462.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kleist, D. T., , and Morgan M. C. , 2005: Interpretation of the structure and evolution of adjoint-derived forecast sensitivity gradients. Mon. Wea. Rev., 133 , 466484.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klemp, J. B., , and Wilhelmson R. B. , 1978: The simulation of three-dimensional convective storm dynamics. J. Atmos. Sci., 35 , 10701096.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kuo, H. L., 1974: Further studies of the influence of cumulus convection on larger-scale flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 31 , 12321240.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kuo, Y-H., , Zou X. , , and Guo Y-R. , 1996: Variational assimilation of precipitable water using a nonhydrostatic mesoscale adjoint model. Part I: Moisture retrieval and sensitivity experiments. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124 , 122147.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Le Dimet, F. X., , and Talagrand O. , 1986: Variational algorithms for analysis and assimilation of meteorological observations: Theoretical aspects. Tellus, 38A , 97110.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, D. C., , and Nocedal J. , 1989: On the limited memory BFGS method for large scale optimization. Math. Programm., 45 , 503528.

  • Lorenc, A. C., 2003: The potential of the ensemble Kalman filter for NWP—A comparison with 4DVAR. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 129 , 31833203.

  • Mahfouf, J-F., 1999: Influence of physical processes on the tangent-linear approximation. Tellus, 51A , 147166.

  • Marotzke, J. R., , Giering R. , , Zang K. Q. , , Stammer D. , , Hill C. , , and Lee T. , 1999: Construction of the adjoint of the MIT ocean general circulation model and application to Atlantic heat transport sensitivity. J. Geophys. Res., 104 , 2952929547.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mass, C. F., , and Kuo Y-H. , 1998: Regional real-time numerical weather prediction: Current status and future potential. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79 , 253263.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Michalakes, J., 1997a: FLIC: A translator for same-source parallel implementation of regular grid applications. Mathematics and Computer Science Division Tech. Rep. ANL/MCS-TM-223, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, 11 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Michalakes, J., 1997b: RSL: A parallel runtime system library for regional atmospheric models with nesting. Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement (SAMR) Grid Methods, S. Baden et al., Eds., IMA Volumes in Mathematics and its Applications, Vol. 117, Springer, 59–74.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Michalakes, J., 2000: The same source parallel MM5. Sci. Programm., 8 , 512.

  • Rabier, F., , Järvinen H. , , Klinker E. , , Mahfouf J-F. , , and Simmons A. , 2000: The ECMWF operational implementation of four-dimensional variational assimilation. I: Experimental results with simplified physics. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 126A , 11431170.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sun, J., 2005: Initialization and numerical forecast of a supercell storm observed during STEPS. Mon. Wea. Rev., 133 , 793813.

  • Veersé, F., , and Thépaut J-N. , 1998: Multiple-truncation incremental approach for four-dimensional variational data assimilation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 124 , 18891908.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vukicevic, T., , Greenwald T. , , Zupanski M. , , Zupanski D. , , Vonder Haar T. , , and Jones A. S. , 2004: Mesoscale cloud state estimation from visible and infrared satellite radiances. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132 , 30663077.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ware, R., , Carpenter R. , , Güldner J. , , Liljegren J. , , Nehrkorn T. , , Solheim F. , , and Vandenberghe F. , 2003: A multichannel radiometric profiler of temperature, humidity, and cloud liquid. Radio Sci., 38 .8079, doi:10.1029/2002RS002856.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wee, T-K., , and Kuo Y-H. , 2004: Impact of a digital filter as a weak constraint in MM5 4DVAR: An observing system simulation experiment. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132 , 543559.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zou, X., , Vandenberge F. , , Pondeca M. , , and Kuo Y-H. , 1997: Introduction to adjoint techniques and the MM5 adjoint modeling system. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-435-STR, 107 pp. [Available from UCAR Communications, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307.].

  • Zou, X., , Xiao Q. , , Lipton A. E. , , and Modica G. D. , 2001: A numerical study of the effect of GOES sounder cloud-cleared brightness temperatures on the prediction of Hurricane Felix. J. Appl. Meteor., 40 , 3455.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zupanski, M., , and Zupanski D. , 2002: Four-dimensional variational data assimilation for the blizzard of 2000. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130 , 19671988.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 28 28 3
PDF Downloads 29 29 2

Development and Tests of a New Distributed-Memory MM5 Adjoint

View More View Less
  • 1 Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, Massachusetts
  • | 2 National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado
  • | 3 Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Lexington, Massachusetts
  • | 4 Department of Meteorology, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida
© Get Permissions Rent on DeepDyve
Restricted access

Abstract

Updated versions of the Tangent Linear Model (TLM) and adjoint of the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) have been developed and are now available to the meteorological community. The previous version of the MM5 TLM and adjoint were designed for single-processor computer architectures, based on version 1 of MM5, and were hand coded, which made it difficult to maintain up-to-date versions of the TLM and the adjoint as MM5 evolved. The new TLM and adjoint are based on version 3 of MM5 and run efficiently on multiple-processor computers. The TLM and adjoint were developed with the aid of the Tangent Linear and Adjoint Model Compiler (TAMC) automatic code generator. While some manual intervention is still necessary, the use of the automatic code generator can significantly speed code development and lower code maintenance costs. The new TLM and adjoint contain most of the physics packages and observation operators that were available in the MM5 version 1 TLM and adjoint. The new adjoint has been combined with the MM5 version 3 nonlinear model and an updated minimization module in a four-dimensional variational data assimilation analysis configuration. Accuracy of the new TLM and adjoint has been verified by individual unit and system tests as well as comparisons with the adjoint from MM5 version 1. Timing tests showed substantial decreases in time to solution when increasing the number of processors devoted to the problem.

Corresponding author address: Frank H. Ruggiero, AFRL/VSBYA, 29 Randolph Rd., Hanscom AFB, MA 01731-3010. Email: frank.ruggiero@hanscom.af.mil

Abstract

Updated versions of the Tangent Linear Model (TLM) and adjoint of the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) have been developed and are now available to the meteorological community. The previous version of the MM5 TLM and adjoint were designed for single-processor computer architectures, based on version 1 of MM5, and were hand coded, which made it difficult to maintain up-to-date versions of the TLM and the adjoint as MM5 evolved. The new TLM and adjoint are based on version 3 of MM5 and run efficiently on multiple-processor computers. The TLM and adjoint were developed with the aid of the Tangent Linear and Adjoint Model Compiler (TAMC) automatic code generator. While some manual intervention is still necessary, the use of the automatic code generator can significantly speed code development and lower code maintenance costs. The new TLM and adjoint contain most of the physics packages and observation operators that were available in the MM5 version 1 TLM and adjoint. The new adjoint has been combined with the MM5 version 3 nonlinear model and an updated minimization module in a four-dimensional variational data assimilation analysis configuration. Accuracy of the new TLM and adjoint has been verified by individual unit and system tests as well as comparisons with the adjoint from MM5 version 1. Timing tests showed substantial decreases in time to solution when increasing the number of processors devoted to the problem.

Corresponding author address: Frank H. Ruggiero, AFRL/VSBYA, 29 Randolph Rd., Hanscom AFB, MA 01731-3010. Email: frank.ruggiero@hanscom.af.mil

Save