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Spaced-Antenna Interferometry to Measure Crossbeam Wind, Shear, and Turbulence: Theory and Formulation

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  • 1 School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma
  • | 2 National Severe Storms Laboratory, Norman, Oklahoma
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Abstract

The theory of measuring crossbeam wind, shear, and turbulence within the radar’s resolution volume V6 is described. Spaced-antenna weather radar interferometry is formulated for such measurements using phased-array weather radar. The formulation for a spaced-antenna interferometer (SAI) includes shear of the mean wind, allows turbulence to be anisotropic, and allows receiving beams to have elliptical cross sections. Auto- and cross-correlation functions are derived based on wave scattering by randomly distributed particles. Antenna separation, mean wind, shear, and turbulence all contribute to signal decorrelation. Crossbeam wind cannot be separated from shear, and thus crossbeam wind measurements are biased by shear. It is shown that SAI measures an apparent crossbeam wind (i.e., the angular shear of the radial wind component). Whereas the apparent crossbeam wind and turbulence within V6 cannot be separated using monostatic Doppler techniques, angular shear and turbulence can be separated using the SAI.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Guifu Zhang, School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, 120 David L. Boren Blvd., Suite 5900, Norman, OK 73072-7307. Email: guzhang1@ou.edu

Abstract

The theory of measuring crossbeam wind, shear, and turbulence within the radar’s resolution volume V6 is described. Spaced-antenna weather radar interferometry is formulated for such measurements using phased-array weather radar. The formulation for a spaced-antenna interferometer (SAI) includes shear of the mean wind, allows turbulence to be anisotropic, and allows receiving beams to have elliptical cross sections. Auto- and cross-correlation functions are derived based on wave scattering by randomly distributed particles. Antenna separation, mean wind, shear, and turbulence all contribute to signal decorrelation. Crossbeam wind cannot be separated from shear, and thus crossbeam wind measurements are biased by shear. It is shown that SAI measures an apparent crossbeam wind (i.e., the angular shear of the radial wind component). Whereas the apparent crossbeam wind and turbulence within V6 cannot be separated using monostatic Doppler techniques, angular shear and turbulence can be separated using the SAI.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Guifu Zhang, School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, 120 David L. Boren Blvd., Suite 5900, Norman, OK 73072-7307. Email: guzhang1@ou.edu

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