• Belyshev, A. P., , Klevantsov Yu P. , , and Rozhkov V. A. , 1983: Probability Analysis of the Sea Currents. (in Russian). Gidrometeoizdat, 264 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cherniawsky, J. Y., , Crawford W. R. , , Nikitin O. , , and Carmack E. C. , 2005: Bering Strait transports from satellite altimetry. J. Mar. Res., 63 , 887900.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cooley, W. W., , and Lohnes P. R. , 1971: Multivariate Data Analysis. John Wiley and Sons, 364 pp.

  • Emery, W. J., , and Thomson R. E. , 2003: Data Analysis Methods in Physical Oceanography. 2d ed. Elsevier, 638 pp.

  • Fissel, D. B., , and Tang C. L. , 1991: Response of sea ice drift to wind forcing on the northeastern Newfoundland shelf. J. Geophys. Res., 96 , C10. 1839718409.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fowler, C. F., , Emery W. J. , , and Maslanik J. A. , 2004: Satellite-derived evolution of Arctic sea ice age: October 1978 to March 2003. IEEE Geophys. Remote Sens. Lett., 1 , 7174.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gill, A. E., 1982: Atmosphere–Ocean Dynamics. Academic Press, 662 pp.

  • Greenan, B. J. W., , and Prinsenberg S. J. , 1998: Wind forcing of ice cover in the Labrador shelf marginal ice zone. Atmos.–Ocean, 36 , 2. 7193.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leppäranta, M., 2005: The Drift of Sea Ice. Springer, 266 pp.

  • Maxwell, A. E., 1977: Multivariate Analysis in Behavioural Research. Chapman and Hall, 164 pp.

  • Overland, J. E., , and Pease C. H. , 1988: Modeling ice dynamics of coastal seas. J. Geophys. Res., 93 , C12. 1561915637.

  • Pokrashenko, S. A., , Truskov P. A. , , and Yakunin L. P. , 1987: Investigation of sea-ice drift on the shelf of Sakhalin Island using the radar methods. (in Russian). Proc. (Tr.) Far Eastern Res. Inst. (DVNII), 36 , 4952.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Preller, R. H., , and Hogan P. J. , 1998: Oceanography of the Sea of Okhotsk and the Japan/East Sea. The Sea: The Global Coastal Ocean, A. R. Robinson and K. H. Brink, Eds., Regional Studies and Syntheses, Vol. 11, John Wiley and Sons, 429–481.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rigor, I., , and Wallace J. M. , 2004: Variations in the age of the Arctic sea-ice and summer sea-ice extent. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31 .L09401, doi:10.1029/2004GL019492.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shevchenko, G. V., , Rabinovich A. B. , , and Thomson R. E. , 2004: Sea-ice drift on the northeastern shelf of Sakhalin Island. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34 , 24702491.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tambovsky, V. S., , Tikhonchuk E. A. , , and Shevchenko G. V. , 2001: Characteristics of morphometry and dynamics of sea ice on the northeastern shelf of Sakhalin Island. 16th Int. Symp. on the Okhotsk Sea Ice, Mombetsu, Hokkaido, Japan, The Okhotsk Sea and Cold Ocean Research Association, 356–390.

  • Thorndike, A. S., 1986: Kinematics of the sea ice. The Geophysics of Sea Ice, N. Untersteiner, Ed., Plenum, 489–549.

  • Thorndike, A. S., , and Colony R. , 1982: Sea ice motion response to geostrophic winds. J. Geophys. Res., 87 , C8. 58455852.

  • Wadhams, P., 2000: Ice in the Ocean. Gordon and Breach, 351 pp.

  • Wang, D-P., , Oey L-Y. , , Ezer T. , , and Hamilton P. , 2003: Near-surface currents in DeSoto Canyon (1997–99): Comparison of current meters, satellite observation, and model simulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33 , 313326.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 19 19 1
PDF Downloads 16 16 0

Sea Ice and Current Response to the Wind: A Vector Regressional Analysis Approach

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Institute of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, British Columbia, Canada, and P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
  • | 2 Far Eastern Branch, Institute of Marine Geology and Geophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Russia
  • | 3 Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Institute of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, British Columbia, Canada
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

The authors describe a two-dimensional (vector) regressional model for examining the anisotropic response of ice drift and ocean current velocity (“drift velocity”) to surface wind forcing. Illustration of the method is limited to sea ice response. The principal mathematical and physical properties of the model are outlined, together with estimates of the “response matrices” and the corresponding “response ellipses” (drift velocity response to a unity wind velocity forcing). For each direction, ϕ, of the wind vector the method describes a corresponding “wind factor” α(ϕ) (relative drift speed) and “turning angle” θ(ϕ) (the angle between the drift velocity and wind vector). The major ellipse axis corresponds to the direction of the “effective wind” (ϕ = ϕmax) and the minor axis to the direction of the “noneffective” wind. The eigenvectors of the response matrix define wind directions that are the same as the wind-induced drift velocity directions. Depending on the water depth and offshore distance, six analytical cases are possible, ranging from rectilinear response ellipses near the coast to purely circular response ellipses in the open ocean. The model is used to examine ice drift along the western shelf of Sakhalin Island (Sea of Okhotsk). Responses derived from the vector regression (four parameter) method are less constrained and therefore more representative of wind-induced surface motions than those derived using the traditional complex transfer function (two parameter) approach.

Corresponding author address: Richard E. Thomson, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Institute of Ocean Sciences, 9860 West Saanich Road, Sidney, BC V8L 4B2, Canada. Email: thompsonr@pac.dfo-mgo.gc.ca

Abstract

The authors describe a two-dimensional (vector) regressional model for examining the anisotropic response of ice drift and ocean current velocity (“drift velocity”) to surface wind forcing. Illustration of the method is limited to sea ice response. The principal mathematical and physical properties of the model are outlined, together with estimates of the “response matrices” and the corresponding “response ellipses” (drift velocity response to a unity wind velocity forcing). For each direction, ϕ, of the wind vector the method describes a corresponding “wind factor” α(ϕ) (relative drift speed) and “turning angle” θ(ϕ) (the angle between the drift velocity and wind vector). The major ellipse axis corresponds to the direction of the “effective wind” (ϕ = ϕmax) and the minor axis to the direction of the “noneffective” wind. The eigenvectors of the response matrix define wind directions that are the same as the wind-induced drift velocity directions. Depending on the water depth and offshore distance, six analytical cases are possible, ranging from rectilinear response ellipses near the coast to purely circular response ellipses in the open ocean. The model is used to examine ice drift along the western shelf of Sakhalin Island (Sea of Okhotsk). Responses derived from the vector regression (four parameter) method are less constrained and therefore more representative of wind-induced surface motions than those derived using the traditional complex transfer function (two parameter) approach.

Corresponding author address: Richard E. Thomson, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Institute of Ocean Sciences, 9860 West Saanich Road, Sidney, BC V8L 4B2, Canada. Email: thompsonr@pac.dfo-mgo.gc.ca

Save