• Andrews, D. G., , Holton J. R. , , and Leovy C. B. , 1987: Middle Atmosphere Dynamics. Academic Press, 489 pp.

  • Arnold, K. S., , and She C. Y. , 2003: Metal fluorescence lidar (light detection and ranging) and the middle atmosphere. Contemp. Phys., 44 , 3549.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Becker, E., 2004: Direct heating rates associated with gravity wave saturation. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 66 , 633696.

  • Bills, R. E., , Gardner C. S. , , and Franke S. F. , 1991: Na Doppler/temperature lidar: Initial mesopause region observations and comparison with the Urbana medium frequency radar. J. Geophys. Res., 96 , 2270122707.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chu, X., , and Papen G. C. , 2005: Resonance fluorescence lidar for measurements in the middle and upper atmosphere. Laser Remote Sensing, T. Fujii and T. Fukuchi, Eds., CRC Press, 179–432.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chu, X., , Papen G. C. , , Pan W. , , Gardner C. S. , , and Gelbwachs J. , 2002: Fe Boltzmann temperature lidar: Design, error analysis and first results from North and South Poles. Appl. Opt., 41 , 44004410.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Engstrom, R. W., 1980: RCA Photomultiplier Handbook. Radio Corporation of America, 180 pp.

  • Fricke, K. H., , and von Zahn U. , 1985: Mesopause temperatures derived from probing the hyperfine structure of the D2 resonance line of sodium by lidar. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 47 , 499512.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fritts, D. C., , and Alexander M. J. , 2003: Gravity wave dynamics and effects in the middle atmosphere. Rev. Geophys., 41 .1003, doi:10.1029/2001RG000106.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gardner, C. S., 2004: Performance capabilities of middle-atmosphere temperature lidars: Comparison of Na, Fe, K, Ca, Ca+, and Rayleigh systems. Appl. Opt., 43 , 49414956.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gardner, C. S., , and Yang W. , 1998: Measurements of the dynamical cooling rate associated with the vertical transport of heat by dissipating gravity waves in the mesopause region at the Starfire Optical Range, New Mexico. J. Geophys. Res., 103 , 1690916926.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gardner, C. S., , Senft D. C. , , and Kwon K. H. , 1988: Lidar observations of substantial sodium depletion in the summertime Arctic mesosphere. Nature, 332 , 142144.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gardner, C. S., , Zhao Y. , , and Liu A. Z. , 2002: Atmospheric stability and gravity wave dissipation in the mesopause region. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 64 , 923929.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gardner, C. S., , Plane J. M. C. , , Pan W. , , Vondrak T. , , Murray B. J. , , and Chu X. , 2005: Seasonal variations of the Na and Fe layers at the South Pole and their implications for the chemistry and general circulation of the polar mesosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 110 .D10302, doi:10.1029/2004JD005670.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gibson, A. J., , Thomas L. , , and Bhattachacharyya S. K. , 1979: Laser observations of the ground-state hyperfine structure of sodium and of temperatures in the upper atmosphere. Nature, 281 , 131132.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Houghton, J. T., 1978: The stratosphere and mesosphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 104 , 129.

  • Huang, T. Y. W., , and Smith A. K. , 1991: The mesospheric diabatic circulation and the parameterized thermal effect of gravity wave breaking on the circulation. J. Atmos. Sci., 48 , 10931111.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnson, R. M., , and Killeen T. L. , 1995: The Upper Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere: A Review of Experiment and Theory. Geophys. Monogr., Vol. 87, Amer. Geophys. Union, 356 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kudeki, E., , and Franke S. J. , 1998: Statistics of momentum flux estimation. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 60 , 15491553.

  • Lautenbach, J., , and Höffner J. , 2004: Scanning iron temperature lidar for mesopause temperature observation. Appl. Opt., 43 , 45594563.

  • Liu, A. Z., , and Gardner C. S. , 2005: Vertical heat and constituent transport in the mesopause region by dissipating gravity waves at Maui, Hawaii (20.7°N) and Starfire Optical Range, New Mexico (35°N). J. Geophys. Res., 110 .D09S13, doi:10.1029/2004JD004965.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marsaglia, G., 1965: Ratios of normal random variables and ratios of sums of uniform variables. J. Amer. Stat. Assoc., 60 , 193204.

  • Megie, G., , Bos F. , , Blamont J. E. , , and Chanin M. L. , 1978: Simultaneous nighttime lidar measurements of atmospheric sodium and potassium. Planet. Space Sci., 26 , 2735.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Papoulis, A., , and Pillai S. U. , 2002: Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes. 4th ed. McGraw Hill, 852 pp.

  • Pearson, E. S., , and Johnson N. L. , 1968: Tables of the Incomplete Beta-function. 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, 505 pp.

  • Plane, J. M. C., 1991: The chemistry of meteoric metals in the earth’s upper atmosphere. Int. Rev. Phys. Chem., 10 , 55106.

  • Press, W. H., , Teukolsky S. A. , , Vetterling W. T. , , and Flannery B. P. , 1992: Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN: The Art of Scientific Computing. 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, 963 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Research Systems, 1999: RANDOMN. IDL Version 5.3.

  • Schoeberl, M. R., , Strobel D. F. , , and Apruzese J. P. , 1983: A numerical model of gravity wave breaking and stress in the mesosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 88 , 52495259.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • She, C. Y., , and Yu J. R. , 1995: Doppler-free saturation fluorescence spectroscopy of Na atoms for atmospheric applications. Appl. Opt., 34 , 10631075.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • She, C. Y., , Latifi H. , , Yu J. R. , , Alvarez R. J. II, , Bills R. E. , , and Gardner C. S. , 1990: Two-frequency lidar technique for mesospheric Na temperature measurements. Geophys. Res. Lett., 17 , 929932.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • She, C. Y., , Yu J. R. , , Latifi H. , , and Bills R. E. , 1992: High-spectral-resolution fluorescence light detection and ranging for mesospheric sodium temperature measurements. Appl. Opt., 31 , 20952106.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sherman, J. P., 2002: Mesopause region thermal and dynamical studies based on simultaneous temperature, zonal and meridional wind measurements with an upgraded sodium fluorescence lidar. Ph.D. dissertation, Colorado State University, 137 pp.

  • Siskind, D. E., , Eckermann S. D. , , and Summers M. E. , 2000: Atmospheric Science across the Stratopause. Geophys. Monogr., Vol. 123, Amer. Geophys. Union, 342 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stull, R. B., 1988: An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology. Kluwer Academic, 666 pp.

  • Thorsen, D., , Franke S. J. , , and Kudeki E. , 2000: Statistics of momentum flux estimation using the dual coplanar beam technique. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27 , 31933196.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vincent, R. A., , and Reid I. M. , 1983: HF Doppler measurements of mesospheric gravity wave momentum fluxes. J. Atmos. Sci., 40 , 13211333.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walterscheid, R. L., 1981: Inertio-gravity wave induced accelerations of mean flow having an imposed periodic component: Implications for tidal observations in the meteor region. J. Geophys. Res., 86 , 96989706.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, D-Y., , and Fritts D. C. , 1990: Mesospheric momentum fluxes observed by the MST radar at Poker Flat, Alaska. J. Atmos. Sci., 47 , 15121521.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • White, M. A., 1999: A frequency-agile Na lidar for the measurement of temperature and velocity in the mesopause region. Ph.D. dissertation, Colorado State University, 123 pp.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 16 16 1
PDF Downloads 11 11 0

Statistical Analysis of Sodium Doppler Wind–Temperature Lidar Measurements of Vertical Heat Flux

View More View Less
  • 1 Geophysical Institute, and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska
  • | 2 Geophysical Institute, and Atmospheric Sciences Program, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska
  • | 3 Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

A statistical study is presented of the errors in sodium Doppler lidar measurements of wind and temperature in the mesosphere that arise from the statistics of the photon-counting process that is inherent in the technique. The authors use data from the Colorado State University (CSU) sodium Doppler wind-temperature lidar, acquired at a midlatitude site, to define the statistics of the lidar measurements in different seasons under both daytime and nighttime conditions. The CSU lidar measurements are scaled, based on a 35-cm-diameter receiver telescope, to the use of large-aperture telescopes (i.e., 1-, 1.8-, and 3.5-m diameters). The expected biases in vertical heat flux measurements at a resolution of 480 m and 150 s are determined and compared to Gardner and Yang’s reported geophysical values of 2.3 K m s−1. A cross-correlation coefficient of 2%–7% between the lidar wind and temperature estimates is found. It is also found that the biases vary from −4 × 10−3 K m s−1 for wintertime measurements at night with a 3.5-m telescope to −61 K m s−1 for summertime measurements at midday with a 1-m telescope. During winter, at night, the three telescope systems yield biases in their heat flux measurements that are less than 10% of the reported value of the heat flux; and during summer, at night, the 1.8- and 3.5-m systems yield biases in their heat flux measurements that are less than 10% of the geophysical value. While during winter at midday the 3.5-m system yields biases in their heat flux measurements that are less than 10% of the geophysical value, during summer at midday all of the systems yield flux biases that are greater than the geophysical value of the heat flux. The results are discussed in terms of current lidar measurements and proposed measurements at high-latitude sites.

Corresponding author address: Richard L. Collins, Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 903 Koyukuk Drive, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320. Email: rlc@gi.alaska.edu

Abstract

A statistical study is presented of the errors in sodium Doppler lidar measurements of wind and temperature in the mesosphere that arise from the statistics of the photon-counting process that is inherent in the technique. The authors use data from the Colorado State University (CSU) sodium Doppler wind-temperature lidar, acquired at a midlatitude site, to define the statistics of the lidar measurements in different seasons under both daytime and nighttime conditions. The CSU lidar measurements are scaled, based on a 35-cm-diameter receiver telescope, to the use of large-aperture telescopes (i.e., 1-, 1.8-, and 3.5-m diameters). The expected biases in vertical heat flux measurements at a resolution of 480 m and 150 s are determined and compared to Gardner and Yang’s reported geophysical values of 2.3 K m s−1. A cross-correlation coefficient of 2%–7% between the lidar wind and temperature estimates is found. It is also found that the biases vary from −4 × 10−3 K m s−1 for wintertime measurements at night with a 3.5-m telescope to −61 K m s−1 for summertime measurements at midday with a 1-m telescope. During winter, at night, the three telescope systems yield biases in their heat flux measurements that are less than 10% of the reported value of the heat flux; and during summer, at night, the 1.8- and 3.5-m systems yield biases in their heat flux measurements that are less than 10% of the geophysical value. While during winter at midday the 3.5-m system yields biases in their heat flux measurements that are less than 10% of the geophysical value, during summer at midday all of the systems yield flux biases that are greater than the geophysical value of the heat flux. The results are discussed in terms of current lidar measurements and proposed measurements at high-latitude sites.

Corresponding author address: Richard L. Collins, Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 903 Koyukuk Drive, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320. Email: rlc@gi.alaska.edu

Save