In Situ Samplings and Remote Sensing Measurements to Characterize Aerosol Properties over Southeast Italy

V. Bellantone Physics Department, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy

Search for other papers by V. Bellantone in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
I. Carofalo Physics Department, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy

Search for other papers by I. Carofalo in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
F. De Tomasi Physics Department, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy

Search for other papers by F. De Tomasi in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
M. R. Perrone Physics Department, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy

Search for other papers by M. R. Perrone in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
M. Santese Physics Department, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy

Search for other papers by M. Santese in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
A. M. Tafuro Physics Department, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy

Search for other papers by A. M. Tafuro in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
A. Turnone Physics Department, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy

Search for other papers by A. Turnone in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

Ground-based particulate matter (PM) samplers, an XeF Raman lidar operating in the framework of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET), and a sun/sky radiometer operating in the framework of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) have been used to characterize vertical profiles, optical and microphysical properties, and chemical composition of aerosols during the 29 June–1 July 2005 dust outbreak that occurred over the central-eastern Mediterranean. Aerosol backscatter coefficient, total depolarization, and lidar ratio vertical profiles revealed that a well-mixed dust layer extending from ∼0.5 to 6 km was present over southeastern Italy on 30 June. Sun/sky radiometer measurements revealed a bimodal lognormal size distribution during all measurement days. The particle volume distribution was found to be well correlated either to the PM mass distribution measured at ground by a seven-stage cascade impactor and to the fine to total suspended PM mass ratio measured by ground-based PM samplers. Scanning electron microscopy and ion chromatography analyses on PM samples revealed that coarse-mode aerosols were mainly made of carbonate, aluminum-silicate, and sea salt particles. Carbon, sulfate, and nitrate particles were the main components of fine-mode aerosols representing more than 50% of the total aerosol load; the significant role of fine-mode anthropogenic particles during a dust event is highlighted.

Finally, the potential capabilities of complementary measurements by passive and active remote sensing techniques and in situ observations to retrieve the vertical distribution of the particle number and mass concentration are analyzed and discussed.

Corresponding author address: Maria Rita Perrone, Physics Department, University of Salento, Via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce, Italy. Email: perrone@le.infn.it

This article included in the Fifth International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling (ISTP) special collection.

Abstract

Ground-based particulate matter (PM) samplers, an XeF Raman lidar operating in the framework of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET), and a sun/sky radiometer operating in the framework of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) have been used to characterize vertical profiles, optical and microphysical properties, and chemical composition of aerosols during the 29 June–1 July 2005 dust outbreak that occurred over the central-eastern Mediterranean. Aerosol backscatter coefficient, total depolarization, and lidar ratio vertical profiles revealed that a well-mixed dust layer extending from ∼0.5 to 6 km was present over southeastern Italy on 30 June. Sun/sky radiometer measurements revealed a bimodal lognormal size distribution during all measurement days. The particle volume distribution was found to be well correlated either to the PM mass distribution measured at ground by a seven-stage cascade impactor and to the fine to total suspended PM mass ratio measured by ground-based PM samplers. Scanning electron microscopy and ion chromatography analyses on PM samples revealed that coarse-mode aerosols were mainly made of carbonate, aluminum-silicate, and sea salt particles. Carbon, sulfate, and nitrate particles were the main components of fine-mode aerosols representing more than 50% of the total aerosol load; the significant role of fine-mode anthropogenic particles during a dust event is highlighted.

Finally, the potential capabilities of complementary measurements by passive and active remote sensing techniques and in situ observations to retrieve the vertical distribution of the particle number and mass concentration are analyzed and discussed.

Corresponding author address: Maria Rita Perrone, Physics Department, University of Salento, Via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce, Italy. Email: perrone@le.infn.it

This article included in the Fifth International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling (ISTP) special collection.

Save
  • Ackermann, J., 1998: The extinction-to-backscatter ratio of tropospheric aerosol: A numerical study. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 15 , 10431050.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Allegrini, I., Febo A. , Pasini A. , and Schiarini S. , 1994: Monitoring of the nocturnal mixed layer by means of particulate radon progeny measurement. J. Geophys. Res., 99 , 1876518777.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ansmann, A., Wandinger U. , Riebesell M. , Weitkamp C. , Voss E. , Lahmann W. , and Michaelis W. , 1992: Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosols extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio. Appl. Phys., 55B , 1828.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Avila, A., Queralt-Mitjans I. , and Alarc M. , 1997: Mineralogical composition of African dust delivered by red rains over the northeastern Spain. J. Geophys. Res., 102 , 2197721996.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bardouki, H., and Coauthors, 2003: Chemical composition of size-resolved atmospheric aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean during summer and winter. Atmos. Environ., 37 , 195208.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnaba, F., de Tomasi F. , Gobbi G. P. , Perrone M. R. , and Tafuro A. , 2004: Extinction versus backscatter relationships for lidar applications at 351 nm: Maritime and desert aerosol simulations and comparison with observations. Atmos. Res., 70 , 229259.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blanco, A., de Tomasi F. , Filippo E. , Manno D. , Perrone M. R. , Serra A. , Tafuro A. M. , and Tepore A. , 2003: Characterization of African dust over southern Italy. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3 , 113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bohren, C. F., and Huffman D. R. , 1983: Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles. Wiley and Sons, 530 pp.

  • Buccolieri, A., Buccolieri G. , Dell’Atti A. , Perrone M. R. , and Turnone A. , 2006: Natural sources and heavy metals. Ann. Chimica, 96 , 3–4. 167181.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coulter, R. L., 1979: A comparison of three methods for measuring mixing-layer height. J. Appl. Meteor., 18 , 14961499.

  • d’Almeida, G. A., Koepke P. , and Shettle E. P. , 1991: Atmospheric Aerosols—Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics. A. Deepak Publishing, 561 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Tomasi, F., and Perrone M. R. , 2003: Lidar measurements of tropospheric water vapor and aerosol profiles over southeastern Italy. J. Geophys. Res., 108 .4286, doi:10.1029/2002JD002781.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Tomasi, F., Blanco A. , and Perrone M. R. , 2003: Raman lidar monitoring of extinction and backscattering of Africa dust layers and dust characterization. Appl. Opt., 42 , 16991709.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Tomasi, F., Tafuro A. M. , and Perrone M. R. , 2006: Height and seasonal dependence of aerosol optical properties over south-east Italy. J. Geophys. Res., 111 .D10203, doi:10.1029/2005JD006779.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Di Iorio, T., di Sarra A. , Junkermann W. , Cacciani M. , Fiocco G. , and Fuà D. , 2003: Tropospheric aerosols in the Mediterranean: 1. Microphysical and optical properties. J. Geophys. Res., 108 .4316, doi:10.1029/2002JD002815.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dubovik, O., and King M. D. , 2000: A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from sun and sky radiance measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 105 , 2067320696.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dubovik, O., Smirnov A. , Holben B. N. , King M. D. , Kaufman Y. J. , Eck T. F. , and Slutsker I. , 2000: Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun and sky radiance measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 105 , D8. 97919806.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dubovik, O., Holben B. N. , Eck T. F. , Smirnov A. , Kaufman Y. J. , King M. D. , Tanré D. , and Slutsker I. , 2002: Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations. J. Atmos. Sci., 59 , 590608.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dubovik, O., and Coauthors, 2006: Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust. J. Geophys. Res., 111 .D11208, doi:10.1029/2005JD006619.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eck, T. F., Holben B. N. , Reid J. S. , Dubovik O. , Kinne S. , Smirnov A. , O’Neill N. T. , and Slutsker I. , 1999: The wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban and desert dust aerosols. J. Geophys. Res., 104 , 3133331350.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fernald, F. G., 1984: Analysis of atmospheric Lidar observations: Some comments. Appl. Opt., 23 , 652653.

  • Formenti, P., and Coauthors, 2002: STAARTE-MED 1998 summer airborne measurements over Aegean Sea. 2. Aerosol scattering and absorption, and radiative calculations. J. Geophys. Res., 107 .4451, doi:10.1029/2001JD001536.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holben, B. N., and Coauthors, 1998: AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization—An overview. Remote Sens. Environ., 66 , 116.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holben, B. N., and Coauthors, 2001: An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET. J. Geophys. Res., 106 , 1206712097.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaufman, Y. J., Tanré D. , and Boucher O. , 2002: A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system. Nature, 419 , 215223.

  • Klein, F., Randy C. , and Sowa L. , 1984: A new examination of the validity of the principle of beta radiation absorption for determination of ambient air dust concentration. J. Aerosol Sci., 15 , 391395.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kouyoumdjian, H., and Saliba N. A. , 2005: Ion concentrations of PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 aerosols over the eastern Mediterranean region: Seasonal variation and source identification. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 5 , 1305313073.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Matthias, V., and Bösenberg J. , 2002: Aerosol climatology for the plenary boundary layer derived from regular lidar measurements. Atmos. Res., 63 , 221245.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Matthias, V., and Coauthors, 2004a: Vertical aerosol distribution over Europe: Statistical analysis of Raman lidar data from 10 European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) stations. J. Geophys. Res., 109 .D18201, doi:10.1029/2004JD004638.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Matthias, V., and Coauthors, 2004b: Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project: 1. Instrument. Appl. Opt., 43 , 961976.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mihalopoulos, N., Stephanou E. , Kanakidou M. , Pilitsidis S. , and Bousquet P. , 1997: Troposheric aerosol ionic composition in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Tellus, 49B , 314326.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Müller, D., Mattis I. , Wandinger U. , Ansmann A. , Althausen D. , Dubovik O. , Eckhardt S. , and Stohl A. , 2003: Saharan dust over a central European EARLINET-AERONET site: Combined observations with Raman lidar and Sun photometer. J. Geophys. Res., 108 .4345, doi:10.1029/2002JD002918.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paoletti, L., De Berardis B. , and Diociaiuti M. , 2002: Physicochemical characterisation of the inhalable particulate matter (PM10) in an urban area: An analysis of the seasonal trend. Sci. Total Environ., 292 , 265275.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Perrone, M. R., Santese M. , Tafuro A. M. , Holben B. , and Smirnov A. , 2005: Aerosol load characterization over South-East Italy by one year of AERONET sun-photometer measurements. Atmos. Res., 75 , 111133.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Perrone, M. R., Turnone A. , Buccolieri A. , and Buccolieri G. , 2006: Particulate matter characterization at a coastal site in south-eastern Italy. J. Environ. Monit., 8 , 183190.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robles Gonzalez, C., Schaap M. , de Leeuw G. , Builjes P. J. H. , and van Loon M. , 2003: Spatial variation of aerosol properties over Europe derived from satellite observations and comparison with model calculations. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3 , 521533.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sasano, Y., and Browell E. V. , 1989: Light scattering characteristics of various aerosol types derived from multiple wavelength lidar observations. Appl. Opt., 28 , 16701679.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schwartz, S. E., and Andreae M. O. , 1996: Uncertainty in climate change caused by anthropogenic aerosols. Science, 272 , 11211122.

  • Smirnov, A., Holben B. N. , Eck T. F. , Dubovik O. , and Slutsker I. , 2000: Cloud screening and quality control algorithms for aerosol data base. Remote Sens. Environ., 73 , 337349.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tafuro, A. M., Barnaba F. , De Tomasi F. , Perrone M. R. , and Gobbi G. P. , 2006: Saharan dust properties over the central Mediterranean. J. Atmos. Res., 81 , 6793.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tegen, I., Hollrigl P. , Chin M. , Fung I. , Jacob D. , and Penner J. E. , 1997: Contribution of different aerosol species to the global aerosol extinction optical thickness: Estimates from model results. J. Geophys. Res., 102 , 2389523915.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wandinger, U., 2005: Introduction to Lidar. LIDAR, Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, C. Weitkamp, Ed., Springer, 1–18.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 698 509 26
PDF Downloads 149 52 5