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Ice-Tethered Profiler Measurements of Dissolved Oxygen under Permanent Ice Cover in the Arctic Ocean

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  • 1 Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut
  • | 2 Department of Physical Oceanography, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts
  • | 3 Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts
  • | 4 Department of Physical Oceanography, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts
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Abstract

Four ice-tethered profilers (ITPs), deployed between 2006 and 2009, have provided year-round dissolved oxygen (DO) measurements from the surface mixed layer to 760-m depth under the permanent sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean. These ITPs drifted with the permanent ice pack and returned 2 one-way profiles per day of temperature, salinity, and DO. Long-term calibration drift of the oxygen sensor can be characterized and removed by referencing to recently calibrated ship DO observations on deep isotherms. Observed changes in the water column time series are due to both drift of the ITP into different water masses and seasonal variability, driven by both physical and biological processes within the water column. Several scientific examples are highlighted that demonstrate the considerable potential for sustained ITP-based DO measurements to better understand the Arctic Ocean circulation patterns and biogeochemical processes beneath the sea ice.

Corresponding author address: Mary-Louise Timmermans, Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06515. Email: mary-louise.timmermans@yale.edu

Abstract

Four ice-tethered profilers (ITPs), deployed between 2006 and 2009, have provided year-round dissolved oxygen (DO) measurements from the surface mixed layer to 760-m depth under the permanent sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean. These ITPs drifted with the permanent ice pack and returned 2 one-way profiles per day of temperature, salinity, and DO. Long-term calibration drift of the oxygen sensor can be characterized and removed by referencing to recently calibrated ship DO observations on deep isotherms. Observed changes in the water column time series are due to both drift of the ITP into different water masses and seasonal variability, driven by both physical and biological processes within the water column. Several scientific examples are highlighted that demonstrate the considerable potential for sustained ITP-based DO measurements to better understand the Arctic Ocean circulation patterns and biogeochemical processes beneath the sea ice.

Corresponding author address: Mary-Louise Timmermans, Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06515. Email: mary-louise.timmermans@yale.edu

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