Retrieval of Three-Dimensional Raindrop Size Distribution Using X-Band Polarimetric Radar Data

D-S. Kim Department of Environmental Atmospheric Sciences, Pukyong National University, Busan, South Korea

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M. Maki National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba, Japan

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D-I. Lee Department of Environmental Atmospheric Sciences, Pukyong National University, Busan, South Korea

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Abstract

An improved algorithm based on the self-consistent principle for rain attenuation correction of reflectivity ZH and differential reflectivity ZDR are presented for X-band radar. The proposed algorithm calculates the optimum coefficients for the relation between the specific attenuation coefficient and the specific differential phase, every 1 km along a slant range. The attenuation-corrected ZDR is calculated from reflectivity at horizontal polarization and from reflectivity at vertical polarization after attenuation correction. The improved rain attenuation correction algorithm is applied to the range–height indicator (RHI) scans as well as the plan position indicator (PPI) volume scan data observed by X-band wavelength (MP-X) radar, as operated by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) in Japan. The corrected ZH and ZDR values are in good agreement with those calculated from the drop size distribution (DSD) measured by disdrometers.

The two governing parameters of a normalized gamma DSD, normalized number concentration NW, and drop median diameter D0 are estimated from the corrected ZH and ZDR, and specific differential phase KDP values based on the “constrained-gamma” method. The method is applied to PPI and RHI data of a typhoon rainband to retrieve the three-dimensional distribution of DSD. The retrieved DSD parameters show reasonable agreement with disdrometer data. The present results demonstrate that high-quality correction and retrieval DSDs can be derived from X-band polarimetric radar data.

* Current affiliation: National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba, Japan

Corresponding author address: Dong-In Lee, Dept. of Environmental Atmospheric Sciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyeon-3dong, Namgu, Busan 608-737, South Korea. Email: leedi@pknu.ac.kr

Abstract

An improved algorithm based on the self-consistent principle for rain attenuation correction of reflectivity ZH and differential reflectivity ZDR are presented for X-band radar. The proposed algorithm calculates the optimum coefficients for the relation between the specific attenuation coefficient and the specific differential phase, every 1 km along a slant range. The attenuation-corrected ZDR is calculated from reflectivity at horizontal polarization and from reflectivity at vertical polarization after attenuation correction. The improved rain attenuation correction algorithm is applied to the range–height indicator (RHI) scans as well as the plan position indicator (PPI) volume scan data observed by X-band wavelength (MP-X) radar, as operated by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) in Japan. The corrected ZH and ZDR values are in good agreement with those calculated from the drop size distribution (DSD) measured by disdrometers.

The two governing parameters of a normalized gamma DSD, normalized number concentration NW, and drop median diameter D0 are estimated from the corrected ZH and ZDR, and specific differential phase KDP values based on the “constrained-gamma” method. The method is applied to PPI and RHI data of a typhoon rainband to retrieve the three-dimensional distribution of DSD. The retrieved DSD parameters show reasonable agreement with disdrometer data. The present results demonstrate that high-quality correction and retrieval DSDs can be derived from X-band polarimetric radar data.

* Current affiliation: National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba, Japan

Corresponding author address: Dong-In Lee, Dept. of Environmental Atmospheric Sciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyeon-3dong, Namgu, Busan 608-737, South Korea. Email: leedi@pknu.ac.kr

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