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Planck-Weighted Transmittance and Correction of Solar Reflection for Broadband Infrared Satellite Channels

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  • 1 Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado
  • | 2 NOAA/National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service/Center for Satellite Applications and Research, Camp Springs, Maryland
  • | 3 Dell, Inc., Camp Springs, Maryland
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Abstract

The line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) is used to derive the channel transmittances. The channel transmittance from a level to the top of the atmosphere can be approximated by three methods: Planck-weighted transmittance 1 (PW1), Planck-weighted transmittance 2 (PW2), and non-Planck-weighted transmittance (ORD). The PW1 method accounts for a radiance variation across the instrument’s spectral response function (SRF) and the Planck function is calculated with atmospheric layer temperature, whereas the PW2 method accounts for the variation based on the temperatures at the interface between atmospheric layers. For channels with broad SRFs, the brightness temperatures (BTs) derived from the ORD are less accurate than these from either PW1 or PW2. Furthermore, the BTs from PW1 are more accurate than these from PW2, and the BT differences between PW1 and PW2 increase with atmospheric optical thickness.

When the band correction is larger than 1, the PW1 method should be used to account for the Planck radiance variation across the instrument’s SRF. When considering the solar contribution in daytime, the correction of the solar reflection has been made for near-infrared broadband channels (~3.7 μm) when using PW1 transmittance. The solar transmittance is predicted by using explanatory variables, such as PW1 transmittance, the secant of zenith angle, and the surface temperature. With this correction, the errors can be significantly reduced.

Corresponding author address: Yong Chen, 5200 Auth Road, Room 703, Camp Springs, MD 20746. E-mail: yong.chen@noaa.gov

Abstract

The line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) is used to derive the channel transmittances. The channel transmittance from a level to the top of the atmosphere can be approximated by three methods: Planck-weighted transmittance 1 (PW1), Planck-weighted transmittance 2 (PW2), and non-Planck-weighted transmittance (ORD). The PW1 method accounts for a radiance variation across the instrument’s spectral response function (SRF) and the Planck function is calculated with atmospheric layer temperature, whereas the PW2 method accounts for the variation based on the temperatures at the interface between atmospheric layers. For channels with broad SRFs, the brightness temperatures (BTs) derived from the ORD are less accurate than these from either PW1 or PW2. Furthermore, the BTs from PW1 are more accurate than these from PW2, and the BT differences between PW1 and PW2 increase with atmospheric optical thickness.

When the band correction is larger than 1, the PW1 method should be used to account for the Planck radiance variation across the instrument’s SRF. When considering the solar contribution in daytime, the correction of the solar reflection has been made for near-infrared broadband channels (~3.7 μm) when using PW1 transmittance. The solar transmittance is predicted by using explanatory variables, such as PW1 transmittance, the secant of zenith angle, and the surface temperature. With this correction, the errors can be significantly reduced.

Corresponding author address: Yong Chen, 5200 Auth Road, Room 703, Camp Springs, MD 20746. E-mail: yong.chen@noaa.gov
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