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Partial CO2 Column-Averaged Dry-Air Mixing Ratio from Measurements by Coherent 2-μm Differential Absorption and Wind Lidar with Laser Frequency Offset Locking

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  • 1 * National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Koganei, Tokyo, Japan
  • | 2 Hamamatsu Photonics K. K., Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan
  • | 3 Nippon Aleph Co., Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
  • | 4 Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hino, Tokyo, Japan
  • | 5 National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • | 6 ** Tohoku Institute of Technology, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan
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Abstract

A coherent 2-μm differential absorption and wind lidar (Co2DiaWiL) with a 2-μm single-frequency Q-switched laser with laser frequency offset locking was used for long-range CO2 measurement. The frequency stabilization of the single-frequency λ on pulsed laser was 1.0 MHz. Experimental horizontal CO2 measurement over a column range of 2.6–5.6 km and 900 shot pairs (1-min integration time) was conducted on 22 October 2009 to examine the detection sensitivity of the Co2DiaWiL. The achieved precision was less than 2.1%. The root-mean-square of the differences between the 30-min CO2 averages measured by the Co2DiaWiL and a ground-based in situ instrument was 0.9% (3.5 ppm). Experimental vertical CO2 measurements were conducted in February 2010 and January and February 2011. The partial CO2 column-averaged dry-air mixing ratios (XCO2) for an altitude between 0.4 and 1.0 km in 2010 and 2011 were 403.2 ± 4.2 and 405.6 ± 3.4 ppm, respectively. In the paper, the Co2DiaWiL results were well validated carefully against those of the airborne in situ instrument; they agreed well within the margin of error. The values of XCO2 measured in presence of cirrus clouds near the tropopause (hard target cases) show a difference of less than 4.1 ppm with the airborne measurements performed on 14 February 2010. This result demonstrates the capability of the Co2DiaWiL to measure XCO2 within a precision better than 1%.

Current affiliation: Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba, Japan.

Current affiliation: Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Tokyo, Japan.

Corresponding author address: Shoken Ishii, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1 Nukuikitamachi, Kogenei, Tokyo 184-8795, Japan. E-mail: sishii@nict.go.jp

Abstract

A coherent 2-μm differential absorption and wind lidar (Co2DiaWiL) with a 2-μm single-frequency Q-switched laser with laser frequency offset locking was used for long-range CO2 measurement. The frequency stabilization of the single-frequency λ on pulsed laser was 1.0 MHz. Experimental horizontal CO2 measurement over a column range of 2.6–5.6 km and 900 shot pairs (1-min integration time) was conducted on 22 October 2009 to examine the detection sensitivity of the Co2DiaWiL. The achieved precision was less than 2.1%. The root-mean-square of the differences between the 30-min CO2 averages measured by the Co2DiaWiL and a ground-based in situ instrument was 0.9% (3.5 ppm). Experimental vertical CO2 measurements were conducted in February 2010 and January and February 2011. The partial CO2 column-averaged dry-air mixing ratios (XCO2) for an altitude between 0.4 and 1.0 km in 2010 and 2011 were 403.2 ± 4.2 and 405.6 ± 3.4 ppm, respectively. In the paper, the Co2DiaWiL results were well validated carefully against those of the airborne in situ instrument; they agreed well within the margin of error. The values of XCO2 measured in presence of cirrus clouds near the tropopause (hard target cases) show a difference of less than 4.1 ppm with the airborne measurements performed on 14 February 2010. This result demonstrates the capability of the Co2DiaWiL to measure XCO2 within a precision better than 1%.

Current affiliation: Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba, Japan.

Current affiliation: Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Tokyo, Japan.

Corresponding author address: Shoken Ishii, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1 Nukuikitamachi, Kogenei, Tokyo 184-8795, Japan. E-mail: sishii@nict.go.jp
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