Observational Evidence of Summer Shamal Swells along the West Coast of India

Johnson Glejin Ocean Engineering, CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, CSIR, Dona Paula, Goa, India

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V. Sanil Kumar Ocean Engineering, CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, CSIR, Dona Paula, Goa, India

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T. M. Balakrishnan Nair Ocean Science and Information Services Group, Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Hyderabad, India

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Jai Singh Ocean Engineering, CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, CSIR, Dona Paula, Goa, India

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Prakash Mehra Ocean Engineering, CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, CSIR, Dona Paula, Goa, India

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Abstract

Wave data collected off Ratnagiri, which is on the west coast of India, in 2010 and 2011 are used to examine the presence of the summer shamal swells. This study also aims to understand variations in wave characteristics and associated modifications in wind sea propagation at Ratnagiri. Wind data collected using an autonomous weather station (AWS), along with Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) and NCEP data, are used to identify the presence of summer shamal winds along the west coast of the Indian subcontinent and on the Arabian Peninsula. NCEP and ASCAT data indicate the presence of summer shamal winds over the Arabian Peninsula and northwesterly winds at Ratnagiri. This study identifies the presence of swells from the northwest that originate from the summer shamal winds in the Persian Gulf and that reach Ratnagiri during 30% of the summer shamal period. AWS data show the presence of northwest winds during May and southwest winds during the strong southwest monsoon period (June–August). Another important factor identified at Ratnagiri that is associated with the summer shamal events is the direction of wind sea waves. During the onset of the southwest monsoon (May), the sea direction is in the direction of swell propagation (northwest); however, during the southwest monsoon (June–August), a major part of the wind sea direction is from the southwest. The average occurrence of summer shamal swells is approximately 22% during the southwest monsoon period. An increase in wave height is observed during June and July at Ratnagiri due to the strong summer shamal event.

CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography Contribution Number 5256.

Corresponding author address: V. Sanil Kumar, Principal Scientist, Ocean Engineering, CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, CSIR, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 India. E-mail: sanil@nio.org

Abstract

Wave data collected off Ratnagiri, which is on the west coast of India, in 2010 and 2011 are used to examine the presence of the summer shamal swells. This study also aims to understand variations in wave characteristics and associated modifications in wind sea propagation at Ratnagiri. Wind data collected using an autonomous weather station (AWS), along with Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) and NCEP data, are used to identify the presence of summer shamal winds along the west coast of the Indian subcontinent and on the Arabian Peninsula. NCEP and ASCAT data indicate the presence of summer shamal winds over the Arabian Peninsula and northwesterly winds at Ratnagiri. This study identifies the presence of swells from the northwest that originate from the summer shamal winds in the Persian Gulf and that reach Ratnagiri during 30% of the summer shamal period. AWS data show the presence of northwest winds during May and southwest winds during the strong southwest monsoon period (June–August). Another important factor identified at Ratnagiri that is associated with the summer shamal events is the direction of wind sea waves. During the onset of the southwest monsoon (May), the sea direction is in the direction of swell propagation (northwest); however, during the southwest monsoon (June–August), a major part of the wind sea direction is from the southwest. The average occurrence of summer shamal swells is approximately 22% during the southwest monsoon period. An increase in wave height is observed during June and July at Ratnagiri due to the strong summer shamal event.

CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography Contribution Number 5256.

Corresponding author address: V. Sanil Kumar, Principal Scientist, Ocean Engineering, CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, CSIR, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 India. E-mail: sanil@nio.org
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