On the Temperature Structure Parameter and Sensible Heat Flux over Helsinki from Sonic Anemometry and Scintillometry

C. R. Wood * Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland

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R. D. Kouznetsov Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland, and A. M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Moscow, Russia

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R. Gierens Finnish Meteorological Institute, and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

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A. Nordbo Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

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L. Järvi Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

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M. A. Kallistratova A. M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Moscow, Russia

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J. Kukkonen * Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland

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Abstract

Two commercial large-aperture scintillometers, Scintec BLS900, were tested on pathlengths of 1840 and 4200 m at about 45–65 m above ground in Helsinki, Finland. From July 2011 through June 2012, large variability in diurnal and annual cycles of both the temperature structure parameter and sensible heat flux were observed. Scintillometer data were compared with data from two eddy-covariance stations. A robust method was developed for the calculation of from raw sonic-anemometer data. In contrast to many earlier studies that solely present the values of , the main focus here is on comparisons of itself. This has advantages, because optical-wavelength scintillometers measure with few assumptions, while the determination of implies the applicability of the Monin–Obukhov similarity theory, which has several inherent limitations. The histograms of compare well between sonic and scintillometer. In-depth analysis is focused on one of the scintillometer paths: both and comparisons gave similar and surprisingly high correlation coefficients (0.85 for and 0.84–0.95 for in unstable conditions), given the differences between the two measurement techniques, substantial sensor separation, and different source areas.

Corresponding author address: Curtis Wood, Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland. E-mail: curtis.wood@fmi.fi

This article is included in the ISARS 2012 special collection.

Abstract

Two commercial large-aperture scintillometers, Scintec BLS900, were tested on pathlengths of 1840 and 4200 m at about 45–65 m above ground in Helsinki, Finland. From July 2011 through June 2012, large variability in diurnal and annual cycles of both the temperature structure parameter and sensible heat flux were observed. Scintillometer data were compared with data from two eddy-covariance stations. A robust method was developed for the calculation of from raw sonic-anemometer data. In contrast to many earlier studies that solely present the values of , the main focus here is on comparisons of itself. This has advantages, because optical-wavelength scintillometers measure with few assumptions, while the determination of implies the applicability of the Monin–Obukhov similarity theory, which has several inherent limitations. The histograms of compare well between sonic and scintillometer. In-depth analysis is focused on one of the scintillometer paths: both and comparisons gave similar and surprisingly high correlation coefficients (0.85 for and 0.84–0.95 for in unstable conditions), given the differences between the two measurement techniques, substantial sensor separation, and different source areas.

Corresponding author address: Curtis Wood, Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland. E-mail: curtis.wood@fmi.fi

This article is included in the ISARS 2012 special collection.

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