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Assessment of Shortwave Infrared Sea Surface Reflection and Nonlocal Thermodynamic Equilibrium Effects in the Community Radiative Transfer Model Using IASI Data

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  • 1 Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, Maryland
  • | 2 Center for Satellite Applications and Research, National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service, College Park, Maryland
  • | 3 IMSG Inc., Rockville, and Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation, College Park, Maryland
  • | 4 Center for Satellite Applications and Research, National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service, College Park, Maryland
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Abstract

The nadir-viewing satellite radiances at shortwave infrared channels from 3.5 to 4.6 μm are not currently assimilated in operational numerical weather prediction data assimilation systems and are not adequately corrected for applications of temperature retrieval at daytime. For satellite observations over the ocean during the daytime, the radiance in the surface-sensitive shortwave infrared is strongly affected by the reflected solar radiance, which can contribute as much as 20.0 K to the measured brightness temperatures (BT). The nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) emission in the 4.3-μm CO2 band can add a further 10 K to the measured BT. In this study, a bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) is developed for the ocean surface and an NLTE radiance correction scheme is investigated for the hyperspectral sensors. Both effects are implemented in the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM). The biases of CRTM simulations to Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) observations and the standard deviations of the biases are greatly improved during daytime (about a 1.5-K bias for NLTE channels and a 0.3-K bias for surface-sensitive shortwave channels) and are very close to the values obtained during the night. These improved capabilities in CRTM allow for effective uses of satellite data at short infrared wavelengths in data assimilation systems and in atmospheric soundings throughout the day and night.

Corresponding author address: Yong Chen, NOAA Center for Weather and Climate Prediction, 5830 University Research Court, Station 2878, College Park, MD 20740. E-mail: yong.chen@noaa.gov

Abstract

The nadir-viewing satellite radiances at shortwave infrared channels from 3.5 to 4.6 μm are not currently assimilated in operational numerical weather prediction data assimilation systems and are not adequately corrected for applications of temperature retrieval at daytime. For satellite observations over the ocean during the daytime, the radiance in the surface-sensitive shortwave infrared is strongly affected by the reflected solar radiance, which can contribute as much as 20.0 K to the measured brightness temperatures (BT). The nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) emission in the 4.3-μm CO2 band can add a further 10 K to the measured BT. In this study, a bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) is developed for the ocean surface and an NLTE radiance correction scheme is investigated for the hyperspectral sensors. Both effects are implemented in the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM). The biases of CRTM simulations to Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) observations and the standard deviations of the biases are greatly improved during daytime (about a 1.5-K bias for NLTE channels and a 0.3-K bias for surface-sensitive shortwave channels) and are very close to the values obtained during the night. These improved capabilities in CRTM allow for effective uses of satellite data at short infrared wavelengths in data assimilation systems and in atmospheric soundings throughout the day and night.

Corresponding author address: Yong Chen, NOAA Center for Weather and Climate Prediction, 5830 University Research Court, Station 2878, College Park, MD 20740. E-mail: yong.chen@noaa.gov
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