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Deep Ocean Temperature Measurement with an Uncertainty of 0.7 mK

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  • 1 Research and Development Center for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
  • | 2 Japan Meteorological Agency, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan
  • | 3 National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • | 4 Marine Works Japan, Ltd., Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
  • | 5 Research and Development Center for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
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Abstract

The uncertainty of deep ocean temperature (~1°C) measurement was evaluated. The time drifts of six deep ocean standards thermometers were examined based on laboratory calibrations as performed by the manufacturer in triple point of water (TPW) cells and gallium-melting-point (GaMP) cells. The time drifts ranged from −0.11 to 0.14 mK yr−1. Three of the six thermometers were evaluated at the National Metrology Institute of Japan in five TPW cells and a GaMP cell, and the temperature readings agreed with the realized temperature of the national standard cells of Japan within ±0.14 and ±0.41 mK for TPW and GaMP, respectively. The pressure sensitivities of the deep ocean standards thermometers were estimated by comparison with conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD) thermometers in the deep ocean, and no notable difference was detected. Pressure sensitivities of the two CTD thermometers were examined by laboratory tests, and the results suggest that the deep ocean standards thermometers have no pressure sensitivity, at least up to 65 MPa. The position and attitude motion of the CTD system can affect temperature and salinity data quality. The overall expanded uncertainty of the deep ocean temperature measurement (up to 65 MPa) by the CTD thermometer calibrated in reference to the deep ocean standards thermometer is estimated to be 0.7 mK.

Corresponding author address: Hiroshi Uchida, Research and Development Center for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 2-15 Natsushima, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 237-0061, Japan. E-mail: huchida@jamstec.go.jp

Abstract

The uncertainty of deep ocean temperature (~1°C) measurement was evaluated. The time drifts of six deep ocean standards thermometers were examined based on laboratory calibrations as performed by the manufacturer in triple point of water (TPW) cells and gallium-melting-point (GaMP) cells. The time drifts ranged from −0.11 to 0.14 mK yr−1. Three of the six thermometers were evaluated at the National Metrology Institute of Japan in five TPW cells and a GaMP cell, and the temperature readings agreed with the realized temperature of the national standard cells of Japan within ±0.14 and ±0.41 mK for TPW and GaMP, respectively. The pressure sensitivities of the deep ocean standards thermometers were estimated by comparison with conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD) thermometers in the deep ocean, and no notable difference was detected. Pressure sensitivities of the two CTD thermometers were examined by laboratory tests, and the results suggest that the deep ocean standards thermometers have no pressure sensitivity, at least up to 65 MPa. The position and attitude motion of the CTD system can affect temperature and salinity data quality. The overall expanded uncertainty of the deep ocean temperature measurement (up to 65 MPa) by the CTD thermometer calibrated in reference to the deep ocean standards thermometer is estimated to be 0.7 mK.

Corresponding author address: Hiroshi Uchida, Research and Development Center for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 2-15 Natsushima, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 237-0061, Japan. E-mail: huchida@jamstec.go.jp
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