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Ocean State Forecast along Ship Routes: Evaluation Using ESSO-INCOIS Real-Time Ship-Mounted Wave Height Meter and Satellite Observations

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  • 1 Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services, Earth System Science Organisation, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Hyderabad, India
  • | 2 Earth System Science Organisation, New Delhi, India
  • | 3 Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services, Earth System Science Organisation, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Hyderabad, India
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Abstract

Ocean state forecast (OSF) along ship routes (OAS) is an advisory service of the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) of the Earth System Science Organization (ESSO) that helps mariners to ensure safe navigation in the Indian Ocean in all seasons as well as in extreme conditions. As there are many users who solely depend on this service for their decision making, it is very important to ensure the reliability and accuracy of the service using the available in situ and satellite observations. This study evaluates the significant wave height (Hs) along the ship track in the Indian Ocean using the ship-mounted wave height meter (SWHM) on board the Oceanographic Research Vessel Sagar Nidhi, and the Cryosat-2 and Jason altimeters. Reliability of the SWHM is confirmed by comparing with collocated buoy and altimeter observations. The comparison along the ship routes using the SWHM shows very good agreement (correlation coefficient > 0.80) in all three oceanic regimes, [the tropical northern Indian Ocean (TNIO), the tropical southern Indian Ocean (TSIO), and extratropical southern Indian Ocean (ETSI)] with respect to the forecasts with a lead time of 48 h. However, the analysis shows ~10% overestimation of forecasted significant wave height in the low wave heights, especially in the TNIO. The forecast is found very reliable and accurate for the three regions during June–September with a higher correlation coefficient (average = 0.88) and a lower scatter index (average = 15%). During other months, overestimation (bias) of lower Hs is visible in the TNIO.

Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services, Earth System Science Organization Contribution Number 215.

Publisher’s Note: This article was revised just prior to online publication to correct a misspelling of the fifth coauthor’s name, and thus differs from the printed version.

Corresponding author address: Dr. R. Harikumar, Scientist & In-Charge, Ocean State Forecast Services, ESSO-INCOIS, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Pragathi Nagar (B.O.), Nizampet (S.O.), Hyderabad 500 090, India. E-mail: harikumar@incois.gov.in

Abstract

Ocean state forecast (OSF) along ship routes (OAS) is an advisory service of the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) of the Earth System Science Organization (ESSO) that helps mariners to ensure safe navigation in the Indian Ocean in all seasons as well as in extreme conditions. As there are many users who solely depend on this service for their decision making, it is very important to ensure the reliability and accuracy of the service using the available in situ and satellite observations. This study evaluates the significant wave height (Hs) along the ship track in the Indian Ocean using the ship-mounted wave height meter (SWHM) on board the Oceanographic Research Vessel Sagar Nidhi, and the Cryosat-2 and Jason altimeters. Reliability of the SWHM is confirmed by comparing with collocated buoy and altimeter observations. The comparison along the ship routes using the SWHM shows very good agreement (correlation coefficient > 0.80) in all three oceanic regimes, [the tropical northern Indian Ocean (TNIO), the tropical southern Indian Ocean (TSIO), and extratropical southern Indian Ocean (ETSI)] with respect to the forecasts with a lead time of 48 h. However, the analysis shows ~10% overestimation of forecasted significant wave height in the low wave heights, especially in the TNIO. The forecast is found very reliable and accurate for the three regions during June–September with a higher correlation coefficient (average = 0.88) and a lower scatter index (average = 15%). During other months, overestimation (bias) of lower Hs is visible in the TNIO.

Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services, Earth System Science Organization Contribution Number 215.

Publisher’s Note: This article was revised just prior to online publication to correct a misspelling of the fifth coauthor’s name, and thus differs from the printed version.

Corresponding author address: Dr. R. Harikumar, Scientist & In-Charge, Ocean State Forecast Services, ESSO-INCOIS, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Pragathi Nagar (B.O.), Nizampet (S.O.), Hyderabad 500 090, India. E-mail: harikumar@incois.gov.in
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