• Atwater, D., and Heron M. , 2010: Temporal error analysis for compact cross-loop direction-finding HF radar. OCEANS 2010, IEEE, 6 pp., doi:10.1109/OCEANS.2010.5664291.

  • Barrick, D. E., and Snider J. , 1977: The statistics of HF sea-echo Doppler spectra. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 25, 1928, doi:10.1109/TAP.1977.1141529.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barrick, D. E., and Lipa B. J. , 1997: Evolution of bearing determination in HF current mapping radars. Oceanography, 10 (2), 7275, doi:10.5670/oceanog.1997.27.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barrick, D. E., and Lipa B. J. , 1999: Radar angle determination with MUSIC direction finding. U.S. Patent 5,990,834, filed 29 August 1997, and issued 23 November 1999.

  • Collin, R. E., 1985: Antennas and Radiowave Propagation. McGraw Hill Series in Electrical and Computer Engineering, McGraw-Hill College, 508 pp.

  • Crombie, D. D., 1955: Doppler spectrum of sea echo at 13.56 Mc./s. Nature, 175, 681682, doi:10.1038/175681a0.

  • de Paolo, T., and Terrill E. , 2007: Skill assessment of resolving ocean surface current structure using compact-antenna-style HF radar and the MUSIC direction-finding algorithm. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 24, 12771300, doi:10.1175/JTECH2040.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Paolo, T., Cook T. , and Terrill E. , 2007: Properties of HF radar compact antenna arrays and their effect on the MUSIC algorithm. OCEANS 2007, IEEE, 10 pp., doi:10.1109/OCEANS.2007.4449265.

  • Essen, H.-H., Gurgel K.-W. , and Schlick T. , 2000: On the accuracy of current measurements by means of HF radar. IEEE J. Oceanic Eng., 25, 472480, doi:10.1109/48.895354.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Graber, H. C., Haus B. K. , Chapman R. D. , and Shay L. K. , 1997: HF radar comparisons with moored estimates of current speed and direction: Expected differences and implications. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 18 74918 766, doi:10.1029/97JC01190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harris, F. J., 1978: On the use of windows for harmonic analysis with the discrete Fourier transform. Proc. IEEE, 66, 5183, doi:10.1109/PROC.1978.10837.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kohut, J., Glenn S. , and Barrick D. , 1999: Seasonde is integral to coastal flow model development. Hydro Int., 3, 3267.

  • Laws, K. E., Fernandez D. M. , and Paduan J. D. , 2000: Simulation-based evaluations of HF radar ocean current algorithms. IEEE J. Oceanic Eng., 25, 481491, doi:10.1109/48.895355.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Laws, K. E., Paduan J. D. , and Vesecky J. , 2010: Estimation and assessment of errors related to antenna pattern distortion in CODAR SeaSonde high-frequency radar ocean current measurements. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 27, 10291043, doi:10.1175/2009JTECHO658.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lipa, B., and Barrick D. , 1986: Tidal and storm-surge measurements with single-site CODAR. IEEE J. Oceanic Eng., 11, 241245, doi:10.1109/JOE.1986.1145161.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Longuet-Higgins, M. S., Cartwright D. , and Smith N. , 1963: Observations of the directional spectrum of sea waves using the motions of a floating buoy. Ocean Wave Spectra: Proceedings of a Conference, Prentice-Hall, 111–136.

  • Lorente, P., Piedracoba S. , and Fanjul E. A. , 2014: Validation of high-frequency radar ocean surface current observations in the NW of the Iberian Peninsula. Cont. Shelf Res., 92, 115, doi:10.1016/j.csr.2014.11.001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oke, P. R., Allen J. S. , Miller R. N. , Egbert G. D. , and Kosro P. M. , 2002: Assimilation of surface velocity data into a primitive equation coastal ocean model. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 3122, doi:10.1029/2000JC000511.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paduan, J. D., and Shulman I. , 2004: HF radar data assimilation in the Monterey Bay area. J. Geophys. Res., 109, C07S09, doi:10.1029/2003JC001949.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paduan, J. D., Kim K. C. , Cook M. S. , and Chavez F. P. , 2006: Calibration and validation of direction-finding high-frequency radar ocean surface current observations. IEEE J. Oceanic Eng., 31, 862875, doi:10.1109/JOE.2006.886195.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schmidt, R., 1986: Multiple emitter location and signal parameter estimation. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 34, 276280, doi:10.1109/TAP.1986.1143830.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schott, F. A., Frisch S. A. , and Larsen J. C. , 1986: Comparison of surface currents measured by HF Doppler radar in the western Florida straits during November 1983 to January 1984 and Florida current transports. J. Geophys. Res., 91, 84518460, doi:10.1029/JC091iC07p08451.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tektronix, 2009: Understanding FFT overlap processing fundamentals: Primer. 23 pp. [Available online at https://tw.tek.com/dl/37W_18839_1.pdf.]

  • Wang, W., and Gill E. , 2015: High-resolution spectral estimation of HF radar data for current measurement applications. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 32, 15151525, doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-14-00191.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wyatt, L. R., Green J. J. , and Middleditch A. , 2009: Signal sampling impacts on HF radar wave measurement. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 26, 793805, doi:10.1175/2008JTECHO614.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wyatt, L. R., Atwater D. , Prytz A. , and Rehder S. , 2013: A comparison between SeaSonde and WERA HF radar current measurements. 2013 MTS/IEEE OCEANS—Bergen, IEEE, 4 pp., doi:10.1109/OCEANS-Bergen.2013.6608001.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 31 31 31
PDF Downloads 26 26 26

Evaluation of Beamforming and Direction Finding for a Phased Array HF Ocean Current Radar

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
Restricted access

Abstract

The errors in the current radial velocity measurements are examined using Bartlett beamforming and Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) direction-finding algorithms with a linear phased array antenna system. A variety of radar and environmental parameters are examined. Suggestions for the optimal choice of operating parameters are proposed. The MUSIC algorithm has shown promising performance in current measurement when beamforming is used to first establish the maximum current velocity. Comparisons of radar field data and current meter measurements show RMS radial velocity differences in magnitude of 7.44 and 6.64 cm s−1 for the Bartlett beamforming and MUSIC–Bartlett algorithms, respectively. The results indicate that there are advantages to using a MUSIC–Bartlett approach in operational applications.

Corresponding author address: Wei Wang, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland, P.O. Box 4200, EN 2077C, St John’s NL A1B 3X5, Canada. E-mail: weiw@mun.ca

Abstract

The errors in the current radial velocity measurements are examined using Bartlett beamforming and Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) direction-finding algorithms with a linear phased array antenna system. A variety of radar and environmental parameters are examined. Suggestions for the optimal choice of operating parameters are proposed. The MUSIC algorithm has shown promising performance in current measurement when beamforming is used to first establish the maximum current velocity. Comparisons of radar field data and current meter measurements show RMS radial velocity differences in magnitude of 7.44 and 6.64 cm s−1 for the Bartlett beamforming and MUSIC–Bartlett algorithms, respectively. The results indicate that there are advantages to using a MUSIC–Bartlett approach in operational applications.

Corresponding author address: Wei Wang, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland, P.O. Box 4200, EN 2077C, St John’s NL A1B 3X5, Canada. E-mail: weiw@mun.ca
Save