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Seasonal and Local Solar Time Variation of the Meridional Wind at 95 km from Observations of the 11.072-GHz Ozone Line and the 557.7-nm Oxygen Line

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  • 1 Haystack Observatory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Westford, Massachusetts
  • | 2 School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
  • | 3 Scientific Solutions, Inc., North Chelmsford, Massachusetts
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Abstract

Ground-based spectrometers have been deployed to measure the concentration, velocity, and temperature of ozone in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), using low-cost satellite television electronics to observe the 11.072-GHz line of ozone. The ozone line was observed at an altitude near 95 km at 38°N, 71°W using three spectrometers located at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Haystack Observatory (Westford, Massachusetts), Chelmsford High School (Chelmsford, Massachusetts), and Union College (Schenectady, New York), each pointed south at 8° elevation. Observations from 2009 through 2014 were used to derive the nightly averaged seasonal variation of the 95-km altitude meridional wind velocity, as well as the seasonally averaged variation of the meridional wind with local solar time. The results indicate a seasonal trend in which the winds at 95 km are directed southward at about 10 m s−1 in the summer of the Northern Hemisphere and northward at about 10 m s−1 in the winter. Nighttime data from −5 to +5 local solar time show a gradual transition of the meridional wind velocity from about −20 to 20 m s−1. These variations correlate well with nighttime wind measurements using 557.7-nm optical airglow observations from the Millstone Hill high-resolution Fábry–Perot interferometer (FPI) in Westford.

Denotes Open Access content.

Current affiliation: Scientific Computing, Inc., Springfield, Virginia.

Corresponding author address: Alan E. E. Rogers, Haystack Observatory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Off Route 40, Westford, MA 01886-1299. E-mail: arogers@haystack.mit.edu

Abstract

Ground-based spectrometers have been deployed to measure the concentration, velocity, and temperature of ozone in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), using low-cost satellite television electronics to observe the 11.072-GHz line of ozone. The ozone line was observed at an altitude near 95 km at 38°N, 71°W using three spectrometers located at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Haystack Observatory (Westford, Massachusetts), Chelmsford High School (Chelmsford, Massachusetts), and Union College (Schenectady, New York), each pointed south at 8° elevation. Observations from 2009 through 2014 were used to derive the nightly averaged seasonal variation of the 95-km altitude meridional wind velocity, as well as the seasonally averaged variation of the meridional wind with local solar time. The results indicate a seasonal trend in which the winds at 95 km are directed southward at about 10 m s−1 in the summer of the Northern Hemisphere and northward at about 10 m s−1 in the winter. Nighttime data from −5 to +5 local solar time show a gradual transition of the meridional wind velocity from about −20 to 20 m s−1. These variations correlate well with nighttime wind measurements using 557.7-nm optical airglow observations from the Millstone Hill high-resolution Fábry–Perot interferometer (FPI) in Westford.

Denotes Open Access content.

Current affiliation: Scientific Computing, Inc., Springfield, Virginia.

Corresponding author address: Alan E. E. Rogers, Haystack Observatory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Off Route 40, Westford, MA 01886-1299. E-mail: arogers@haystack.mit.edu
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