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Doppler Correction of Wave Frequency Spectra Measured by Underway Vessels

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  • 1 Oceanography Division, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis Space Center, Mississippi
  • | 2 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association/Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado
  • | 3 Department of Ocean Sciences, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, Florida
  • | 4 Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
  • | 5 Polar Scientific Ltd., Appin, Argyll, Scotland
  • | 6 Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Cambridge University, Cambridge, United Kingdom
  • | 7 National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Auckland, New Zealand
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Abstract

“Sea State and Boundary Layer Physics of the Emerging Arctic Ocean” is an ongoing Departmental Research Initiative sponsored by the Office of Naval Research (http://www.apl.washington.edu/project/project.php?id=arctic_sea_state). The field component took place in the fall of 2015 within the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas and involved the deployment of a number of wave instruments, including a downward-looking Riegl laser rangefinder mounted on the foremast of the R/V Sikuliaq. Although time series measurements on a stationary vessel are thought to be accurate, an underway vessel introduces a Doppler shift to the observed wave spectrum. This Doppler shift is a function of the wavenumber vector and the velocity vector of the vessel. Of all the possible relative angles between wave direction and vessel heading, there are two main scenarios: 1) vessel steaming into waves and 2) vessel steaming with waves. Previous studies have considered only a subset of cases, and all were in scenario 1. This was likely to avoid ambiguities, which arise when the vessel is steaming with waves. This study addresses the ambiguities and analyzes arbitrary cases. In addition, a practical method is provided that is useful in situations when the vessel is changing speed or heading. These methods improved the laser rangefinder estimates of spectral shapes and peak parameters when compared to nearby buoys and a spectral wave model.

Supplemental information related to this paper is available at the Journals Online website: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JTECH-D-16-0138.s1.

© 2017 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author e-mail: C. O. Collins III, tripp.collins@nrlssc.navy.mil

Abstract

“Sea State and Boundary Layer Physics of the Emerging Arctic Ocean” is an ongoing Departmental Research Initiative sponsored by the Office of Naval Research (http://www.apl.washington.edu/project/project.php?id=arctic_sea_state). The field component took place in the fall of 2015 within the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas and involved the deployment of a number of wave instruments, including a downward-looking Riegl laser rangefinder mounted on the foremast of the R/V Sikuliaq. Although time series measurements on a stationary vessel are thought to be accurate, an underway vessel introduces a Doppler shift to the observed wave spectrum. This Doppler shift is a function of the wavenumber vector and the velocity vector of the vessel. Of all the possible relative angles between wave direction and vessel heading, there are two main scenarios: 1) vessel steaming into waves and 2) vessel steaming with waves. Previous studies have considered only a subset of cases, and all were in scenario 1. This was likely to avoid ambiguities, which arise when the vessel is steaming with waves. This study addresses the ambiguities and analyzes arbitrary cases. In addition, a practical method is provided that is useful in situations when the vessel is changing speed or heading. These methods improved the laser rangefinder estimates of spectral shapes and peak parameters when compared to nearby buoys and a spectral wave model.

Supplemental information related to this paper is available at the Journals Online website: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JTECH-D-16-0138.s1.

© 2017 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author e-mail: C. O. Collins III, tripp.collins@nrlssc.navy.mil
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