The Impact of Reflectivity Gradients on the Performance of Range-Oversampling Processing

Christopher D. Curtis aCooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma
bNOAA/OAR/National Severe Storms Laboratory, Norman, Oklahoma

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Sebastián M. Torres aCooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma
bNOAA/OAR/National Severe Storms Laboratory, Norman, Oklahoma

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Abstract

Range-oversampling processing is a technique that can be used to lower the variance of radar-variable estimates, reduce radar update times, or a mixture of both. There are two main assumptions for using range-oversampling processing: accurate knowledge of the range correlation and uniform reflectivity in the radar resolution volume. The first assumption has been addressed in previous research; this work focuses on the uniform reflectivity assumption. Earlier research shows that significant reflectivity gradients can occur in storms; we utilized those results to develop realistic simulations of radar returns that include effects of reflectivity gradients in range. An important consideration when using range-oversampling processing is the resulting change in the range weighting function. The range weighting function can change for different types of range-oversampling processing, and some techniques, such as adaptive pseudowhitening, can lead to different range weighting functions at each range gate. To quantify the possible effects of differing range weighting functions in the presence of reflectivity gradients, we developed simulations to examine varying types of range-oversampling processing with two receiver filters: a matched receiver filter and a wider-bandwidth receiver filter (as recommended for use with range oversampling). Simulation results show that differences in range weighting functions are the only contributor to differences in radar reflectivity measurements. Results from real weather data demonstrate that the reflectivity gradients that occur in typical severe storms do not cause significant changes in reflectivity measurements and that the benefits from range-oversampling processing outweigh the possible isolated effects from large reflectivity gradients.

© 2021 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Christopher Curtis, chris.curtis@noaa.gov

Abstract

Range-oversampling processing is a technique that can be used to lower the variance of radar-variable estimates, reduce radar update times, or a mixture of both. There are two main assumptions for using range-oversampling processing: accurate knowledge of the range correlation and uniform reflectivity in the radar resolution volume. The first assumption has been addressed in previous research; this work focuses on the uniform reflectivity assumption. Earlier research shows that significant reflectivity gradients can occur in storms; we utilized those results to develop realistic simulations of radar returns that include effects of reflectivity gradients in range. An important consideration when using range-oversampling processing is the resulting change in the range weighting function. The range weighting function can change for different types of range-oversampling processing, and some techniques, such as adaptive pseudowhitening, can lead to different range weighting functions at each range gate. To quantify the possible effects of differing range weighting functions in the presence of reflectivity gradients, we developed simulations to examine varying types of range-oversampling processing with two receiver filters: a matched receiver filter and a wider-bandwidth receiver filter (as recommended for use with range oversampling). Simulation results show that differences in range weighting functions are the only contributor to differences in radar reflectivity measurements. Results from real weather data demonstrate that the reflectivity gradients that occur in typical severe storms do not cause significant changes in reflectivity measurements and that the benefits from range-oversampling processing outweigh the possible isolated effects from large reflectivity gradients.

© 2021 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Christopher Curtis, chris.curtis@noaa.gov
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