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On the Consistency of the Bottle and CTD Profile Data

Viktor GouretskiaInternational Center for Climate and Environment Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
bCenter for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China

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Lijing ChengaInternational Center for Climate and Environment Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
bCenter for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China

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Tim BoyercNational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Centers for Environmental Information, Silver Spring, Maryland

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Abstract

Nansen bottle casts served as the main oceanographic instrumentation type for more than a century since the establishing of the technique in the late 1890s. Between the end of the 1960s and the end of the 1990s Nansen cast technique has been gradually replaced by electronic sensor profilers (CTD). Both instrumentation types are considered as the most accurate among other oceanographic instruments and are often used as the unbiased reference. We conducted a comprehensive investigation of the consistency of the temperature data from Nansen casts and CTD profilers analyzing the quasi-collocated bottle and CTD data between the 1960s and the 1990s when both instrumentation types overlap. We found that Nansen casts tend to overestimate the sample depth with reversing mercury-in-glass thermometer temperatures being on average slightly lower compared to CTD data. Respectively, depth and temperature corrections are provided. Further, we estimated the ocean heat content changes between 1955 and 1990 using (along with all other instrumentation types) corrected and uncorrected Nansen cast data. These calculations show that for the upper 2 km layer the global average warming trend for this time period increases from 0.20 ± 0.05 W m−2 for the uncorrected data to 0.28 ± 0.06 W m−2 for the corrected data at the 90% confidence level. Finally, we suggest that the Nansen bottle cast profiles be put into a separate instrumentation group within the World Ocean Database.

© 2022 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding authors: Viktor Gouretski, viktor.gouretski@posteo.de; Lijing Cheng, chenglij@mail.iap.ac.cn

Abstract

Nansen bottle casts served as the main oceanographic instrumentation type for more than a century since the establishing of the technique in the late 1890s. Between the end of the 1960s and the end of the 1990s Nansen cast technique has been gradually replaced by electronic sensor profilers (CTD). Both instrumentation types are considered as the most accurate among other oceanographic instruments and are often used as the unbiased reference. We conducted a comprehensive investigation of the consistency of the temperature data from Nansen casts and CTD profilers analyzing the quasi-collocated bottle and CTD data between the 1960s and the 1990s when both instrumentation types overlap. We found that Nansen casts tend to overestimate the sample depth with reversing mercury-in-glass thermometer temperatures being on average slightly lower compared to CTD data. Respectively, depth and temperature corrections are provided. Further, we estimated the ocean heat content changes between 1955 and 1990 using (along with all other instrumentation types) corrected and uncorrected Nansen cast data. These calculations show that for the upper 2 km layer the global average warming trend for this time period increases from 0.20 ± 0.05 W m−2 for the uncorrected data to 0.28 ± 0.06 W m−2 for the corrected data at the 90% confidence level. Finally, we suggest that the Nansen bottle cast profiles be put into a separate instrumentation group within the World Ocean Database.

© 2022 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding authors: Viktor Gouretski, viktor.gouretski@posteo.de; Lijing Cheng, chenglij@mail.iap.ac.cn
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