• Efimova, N. A., 1961: On methods of calculating monthly values of net longwave radiation (in Russian). Meteor. Gidrol., 10, 2833.

  • Fox-Kemper, B., R. Ferrari, and R. Hallberg, 2008: Parameterization of mixed layer eddies. Part I: Theory and diagnosis. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 11451165, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JPO3792.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fu, L.-L., I. Fukumori, and R. N. Miller, 1993: Fitting dynamic models to the Geosat sea level observations in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Part II: A linear, wind-driven model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23, 21622181, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1993)023<2162:FDMTTG>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fukudome, K.-I., J.-H. Yoon, A. Ostrovskii, T. Takikawa, and I.-S. Han, 2010: Seasonal volume transport variation in the Tsushima Warm Current through the Tsushima Straits from 10 years of ADCP observations. J. Oceanogr., 66, 539551, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10872-010-0045-5.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fukumori, I., R. Raghunath, and L.-L. Fu, 1998: The nature of global large-scale sea level variability in relation to atmospheric forcing: A modeling study. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 54935512, https://doi.org/10.1029/97JC02907.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gent, P. R., and J. C. McWilliams, 1990: Isopycnal mixing in ocean circulation models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 20, 150155, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1990)020<0150:IMIOCM>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Han, S., N. Hirose, and S. Kida, 2018: The role of topographically induced form drag on the channel flows through the East/Japan Sea. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 123, 60916105, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JC013903.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hirose, N., 2011: Inverse estimation of empirical parameters used in a regional ocean circulation model. J. Oceanogr., 67, 323336, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10872-011-0041-4.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hirose, N., K. Takayama, J.-H. Moon, T. Watanabe, and Y. Nishida, 2013: Regional data assimilation system extended to the East Asian marginal seas. Sea Sky, 89, 4351, https://dl.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/10116140.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hirose, N., Y. Kumaki, A. Kaneda, K. Ayukawa, N. Okei, S. Ikeda, Y. Igeta, and T. Watanabe, 2017: Numerical simulation of the abrupt occurrence of strong current in the southeastern Japan Sea. Cont. Shelf Res., 143, 194205, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2016.07.005.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jeon, C., and et al. , 2014: Seasonal variation of semidiurnal internal tides in the East/Japan Sea. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119, 28432859, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JC009864.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jordi, A., and D.-P. Wang, 2013: Estimation of transport at open boundaries with an ensemble Kalman filter in a coastal ocean model. Ocean Modell., 64, 5666, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2013.01.002.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, Y.-S., and R. Kimura, 1995: Error evaluation of the bulk aerodynamic method for estimating heat flux over the sea. J. Korean Meteor. Soc., 31, 399413, http://www.dbpia.co.kr/Journal/articleDetail?nodeId=NODE00942142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kondo, J., 1975: Air-sea bulk transfer coefficients in diabatic conditions. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 9, 91112, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00232256.

  • Large, W. G., J. C. McWilliams, and S. C. Doney, 1994: Oceanic vertical mixing: A review and a model with a nonlocal boundary layer parameterization. Rev. Geophys., 32, 363403, https://doi.org/10.1029/94RG01872.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, T., B. Wang, N. Hirose, T. Yamashiro, and H. Yamada, 2018: High-resolution modeling of the Kuroshio Current power south of Japan. J. Ocean Eng. Mar. Energy, 4, 3755, https://doi.org/10.1007/s40722-017-0103-9.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Menemenlis, D., I. Fukumori, and T. Lee, 2005: Using Green’s functions to calibrate an ocean general circulation model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 133, 12241240, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR2912.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Noh, Y., and H. J. Kim, 1999: Simulation of temperature and turbulence structure of the oceanic boundary layer with the improved near-surface process. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 15 62115 634, https://doi.org/10.1029/1999JC900068.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ostrovskii, A. G., K. Fukudome, J.-H. Yoon, and T. Takikawa, 2009: Variability of the volume transport through the Korea/Tsushima Strait as inferred from the shipborne acoustic Doppler current profiler observations in 1997–2007. Oceanology, 49, 338349, https://doi.org/10.1134/S0001437009030060.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smagorinsky, J., 1963: General circulation experiments with the primitive equation: I. The basic experiment. Mon. Wea. Rev., 91, 99164, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1963)091<0099:GCEWTP>2.3.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tomita, H., M. Kubota, M. F. Cronin, S. Iwasaki, M. Konda, and H. Ichikawa, 2010: An assessment of surface heat fluxes from J-OFURO2 at the KEO and JKEO sites. J. Geophys. Res., 115, C03018, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JC005545.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trossman, D. S., B. K. Arbic, J. G. Richman, S. T. Garner, S. R. Jayne, and A. J. Wallcraft, 2016: Impact of topographic internal lee wave drag on an eddying global ocean model. Ocean Modell., 97, 109128, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2015.10.013.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Uehara, K., 2017: Compilation of bathymetric data covering marginal seas (in Japanese with English abstract). Rep. Res. Inst. Appl. Mech. Kyushu Univ., 153, 8095, https://www.riam.kyushu-u.ac.jp/publicity/reports/riam-reports_153.pdf.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Usui, N., and et al. , 2017: Four-dimensional variational ocean reanalysis: A 30-year high-resolution dataset in the western North Pacific (FORA-WNP30). J. Oceanogr., 73, 205233, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10872-016-0398-5.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, D., A. Cao, J. Zhang, D. Fan, Y. Liu, and Y. Zhang, 2018: A three-dimensional cohesive sediment transport model with data assimilation: Model development, sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation. Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci., 206, 87100, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2016.08.027.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yoshikawa, Y., A. Masuda, K. Marubayashi, and M. Ishibashi, 2010: Seasonal variations of the surface currents in the Tsushima Strait. J. Oceanogr., 66, 223232, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10872-010-0020-1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhao, R., and G. Vallis, 2008: Parameterizing mesoscale eddies with residual and Eulerian schemes, and a comparison with eddy-permitting models. Ocean Modell., 23 112, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2008.02.005.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 55 55 48
Full Text Views 13 13 11
PDF Downloads 19 19 16

Vertical Viscosity Coefficient Increased for High-Resolution Modeling of the Tsushima/Korea Strait

View More View Less
  • 1 a Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka, Japan
  • | 2 b Fisheries Resources Institute, Japan Fisheries Research and Education Agency, Nagasaki, Japan
  • | 3 c Department of Oceanography, Pukyong National University, Busan, South Korea
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

This study clarifies the necessity of an extraordinary large coefficient of vertical viscosity for dynamical ocean modeling in a shallow and narrow strait with complex bathymetry. Sensitivity experiments and objective analyses imply that background momentum viscosity is on the order of 100 cm2 s−1, while tracer diffusivity estimates are on the order of 0.1 cm2 s−1. The physical interpretation of these estimates is also discussed in the last part of this paper. To obtain reliable solutions, this study introduces cyclic application of the dynamical response to each parameter to minimize the number of long-term sensitivity experiments. The recycling Green’s function method yields weaker bottom friction and enhanced latent heat flux simultaneously with the increased viscosity in high-resolution modeling of the Tsushima/Korea Strait.

© 2021 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Naoki Hirose, hirose@riam.kyushu-u.ac.jp

Abstract

This study clarifies the necessity of an extraordinary large coefficient of vertical viscosity for dynamical ocean modeling in a shallow and narrow strait with complex bathymetry. Sensitivity experiments and objective analyses imply that background momentum viscosity is on the order of 100 cm2 s−1, while tracer diffusivity estimates are on the order of 0.1 cm2 s−1. The physical interpretation of these estimates is also discussed in the last part of this paper. To obtain reliable solutions, this study introduces cyclic application of the dynamical response to each parameter to minimize the number of long-term sensitivity experiments. The recycling Green’s function method yields weaker bottom friction and enhanced latent heat flux simultaneously with the increased viscosity in high-resolution modeling of the Tsushima/Korea Strait.

© 2021 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Naoki Hirose, hirose@riam.kyushu-u.ac.jp
Save