Validation of Doppler Wind LiDAR measurements with an Uncrewed Aerial System (UAS) in the daytime atmospheric boundary layer

Jakob Boventer aEberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Geo- und Umweltforschungszentrum, 72076 Tübingen

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Matteo Bramati aEberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Geo- und Umweltforschungszentrum, 72076 Tübingen

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Vasileios Savvakis aEberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Geo- und Umweltforschungszentrum, 72076 Tübingen

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Frank Beyrich bMeteorological Observatory Lindenberg - Richard-Aßmann-Observatory, German Meteorological Service (DWD)

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Markus Kayser bMeteorological Observatory Lindenberg - Richard-Aßmann-Observatory, German Meteorological Service (DWD)

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Andreas Platis aEberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Geo- und Umweltforschungszentrum, 72076 Tübingen

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Jens Bange aEberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Geo- und Umweltforschungszentrum, 72076 Tübingen

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Abstract

One of the most widely used systems for wind speed and direction observations at meteorological sites is based on Doppler Wind LiDAR (DWL) technology. The wind vector derivation strategies of these instruments rely on the assumption of stationary and homogeneous horizontal wind, which is often not the case over heterogeneous terrain. This study focuses on the validation of two DWL systems, operated by the German Weather Service (DWD) and installed at the boundary layer field site Falkenberg (Lindenberg, Germany), with respect to measurements from a small, fixed-wing uncrewed aircraft system (UAS) of type MASC-3. A wind vector intercomparison at an altitude range from 100 to 500 m between DWL and UAS was performed, after a quality control of the aircraft’s data accuracy against a cup anemometer and wind vane mounted on a meteorological mast also operating at the location. Both DWL systems exhibit an overall root mean square difference in wind vector retrieval of less than 22% for wind speed and lower than 18° for wind direction. The enhancement or deterioration of these statistics is analyzed with respect to scanning height and atmospheric stability. The limitations of this type of validation approach are highlighted and accounted for in the analysis.

© 2024 American Meteorological Society. This is an Author Accepted Manuscript distributed under the terms of the default AMS reuse license. For information regarding reuse and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Matteo Bramati, matteo.bramati@uni-tuebingen.de

Abstract

One of the most widely used systems for wind speed and direction observations at meteorological sites is based on Doppler Wind LiDAR (DWL) technology. The wind vector derivation strategies of these instruments rely on the assumption of stationary and homogeneous horizontal wind, which is often not the case over heterogeneous terrain. This study focuses on the validation of two DWL systems, operated by the German Weather Service (DWD) and installed at the boundary layer field site Falkenberg (Lindenberg, Germany), with respect to measurements from a small, fixed-wing uncrewed aircraft system (UAS) of type MASC-3. A wind vector intercomparison at an altitude range from 100 to 500 m between DWL and UAS was performed, after a quality control of the aircraft’s data accuracy against a cup anemometer and wind vane mounted on a meteorological mast also operating at the location. Both DWL systems exhibit an overall root mean square difference in wind vector retrieval of less than 22% for wind speed and lower than 18° for wind direction. The enhancement or deterioration of these statistics is analyzed with respect to scanning height and atmospheric stability. The limitations of this type of validation approach are highlighted and accounted for in the analysis.

© 2024 American Meteorological Society. This is an Author Accepted Manuscript distributed under the terms of the default AMS reuse license. For information regarding reuse and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Matteo Bramati, matteo.bramati@uni-tuebingen.de
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