Spongy Hailstone Growth Criteria II. Microstructures

Charles A. Knight National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo.

Search for other papers by Charles A. Knight in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
and
Nancy C. Knight National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo.

Search for other papers by Nancy C. Knight in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

The freezing of a spongy ice deposit produces a variety of distinctive internal structures caused by the expansion of the trapped water upon freezing. Cracks, certain arrangements of sub-boundaries, and some particular air bubble structures formed in this way are criteria of spongy hailstone growth, after complete freezing. Conclusions from these criteria applied to natural hail agree with conclusions from orientation fabrics.

Abstract

The freezing of a spongy ice deposit produces a variety of distinctive internal structures caused by the expansion of the trapped water upon freezing. Cracks, certain arrangements of sub-boundaries, and some particular air bubble structures formed in this way are criteria of spongy hailstone growth, after complete freezing. Conclusions from these criteria applied to natural hail agree with conclusions from orientation fabrics.

Save