The Effect of Vertical Stability on Tornadogenesis

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  • 1 Australian Numerical Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, Australia 3001
  • | 2 Department of Mathematics, Monash University, Clayton, Australia 3168
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Abstract

A recent numerical study of vortex growth in a flow configuration which models the principal characteristics of a tornado cyclone (Smith and Leslie, 1978) is extended to take account of vertical stability. It is shown that for a given strength of convection and rotation (in the model, the driving effect of a ‘supercell’ updraft is simulated by an imposed body force), the intensity of the mature vortex which forms in the presence of a typical vertical gradient of potential temperature is significantly lower than that which forms in an adiabatic atmosphere. We conclude that the effects of vertical stratification on tornadogenesis may often be important and may prevent some vortices, which might otherwise do so, from establishing ground contact.

Abstract

A recent numerical study of vortex growth in a flow configuration which models the principal characteristics of a tornado cyclone (Smith and Leslie, 1978) is extended to take account of vertical stability. It is shown that for a given strength of convection and rotation (in the model, the driving effect of a ‘supercell’ updraft is simulated by an imposed body force), the intensity of the mature vortex which forms in the presence of a typical vertical gradient of potential temperature is significantly lower than that which forms in an adiabatic atmosphere. We conclude that the effects of vertical stratification on tornadogenesis may often be important and may prevent some vortices, which might otherwise do so, from establishing ground contact.

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