Growth of Aqueous Solution Droplets of HNO3 and HCl in the Atmosphere

P. V. N. Nair Division of Radiological Protection, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay-400 085, India

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P. V. Joshi Division of Radiological Protection, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay-400 085, India

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U. C. Mishra Division of Radiological Protection, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay-400 085, India

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K. G. Vohra Division of Radiological Protection, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay-400 085, India

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Abstract

Computed values of equilibrium sizes and composition of uncharged and charged aqueous solution droplets of HNO3 and HCl at 25°C, relative humidifies from 5 to 101%, and solute vapor activities from 10 to 107 are presented. Threshold concentrations for heteromolecular nucleation of HNO3 and HCl at 40, 30, 20, 10, 0, and −10°C are also given as a function of the relative humidity. It is shown that atmospheric concentrations of HNO3 and HCl can participate in nucleation at temperatures below 20°C and relative humidifies above 98%. The nature of the nucleation of HNO3 and HCl in the atmosphere including ion-induced nucleation for which there is no threshold and some of the available experimental results are discussed.

Abstract

Computed values of equilibrium sizes and composition of uncharged and charged aqueous solution droplets of HNO3 and HCl at 25°C, relative humidifies from 5 to 101%, and solute vapor activities from 10 to 107 are presented. Threshold concentrations for heteromolecular nucleation of HNO3 and HCl at 40, 30, 20, 10, 0, and −10°C are also given as a function of the relative humidity. It is shown that atmospheric concentrations of HNO3 and HCl can participate in nucleation at temperatures below 20°C and relative humidifies above 98%. The nature of the nucleation of HNO3 and HCl in the atmosphere including ion-induced nucleation for which there is no threshold and some of the available experimental results are discussed.

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