Organization and Structure of Clouds and Precipitation on the Mid-Atlantic Coast of the United States. Part I: Synoptic Evolution of a Frontal System from the Rockies to the Atlantic Coast

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  • 1 Atmospheric Sciences Department, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
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Abstract

The frontal structure of a cyclone that developed in the lee of the Rocky Mountains and moved eastward across the United States is examined. The evolutions and interactions of three frontal features are traced: the primary cold front, a shallow secondary arctic front, and a leeside trough. The zone of warm advection associated with the lee trough became more concentrated with time, and eventually resembled a warm front. The primary cold front had a tipped-forward structure, with cold advection aloft preceding cold advection at lower levels. This front overran the trough to form on the East Coast a structure that was similar to a warm occlusion or a split cold front. Two rainbands, parallel to and approximately 225 km ahead of the surface front, formed and dissipated within the inner network of the Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment. These rainbands developed at the leading edge of cold advection aloft, and they dissipated as they approached a region of strong convection over the Gulf Stream.

This study provides some insights into the role of a lee trough in the development of a warm occlusion or split cold frontlike structure, the formation of squall lines, and the potential for misanalyzing dry cold fronts. It also highlights the need for some clarifications and/or redefinitions of current terminology associated with occlusions.

Abstract

The frontal structure of a cyclone that developed in the lee of the Rocky Mountains and moved eastward across the United States is examined. The evolutions and interactions of three frontal features are traced: the primary cold front, a shallow secondary arctic front, and a leeside trough. The zone of warm advection associated with the lee trough became more concentrated with time, and eventually resembled a warm front. The primary cold front had a tipped-forward structure, with cold advection aloft preceding cold advection at lower levels. This front overran the trough to form on the East Coast a structure that was similar to a warm occlusion or a split cold front. Two rainbands, parallel to and approximately 225 km ahead of the surface front, formed and dissipated within the inner network of the Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment. These rainbands developed at the leading edge of cold advection aloft, and they dissipated as they approached a region of strong convection over the Gulf Stream.

This study provides some insights into the role of a lee trough in the development of a warm occlusion or split cold frontlike structure, the formation of squall lines, and the potential for misanalyzing dry cold fronts. It also highlights the need for some clarifications and/or redefinitions of current terminology associated with occlusions.

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