• Arakawa, A., and W. H. Schubert, 1974: Interaction of a cumulus cloud ensemble with the large-scale environment. J. Atmos. Sci.,31, 674–701.

  • Arkell, R., and M. Hudlow, 1977: GATE International Meteorological Radar Atlas. Environmental Data Service, NOAA, 222 pp.

  • Augstein, E., 1979: The atmospheric boundary layer over the tropical oceans. Meteorology over the Tropical Oceans, D. B. Shaw, Ed., Royal Meteorological Society, 73–103.

  • Bretherton, C. S., 1987: A theory for nonprecipitating moist convection between two parallel plates. Part I: Thermodynamics and“linear” solutions. J. Atmos. Sci.,44, 1809–1827.

  • ——, and P. K. Smolarkiewicz, 1989: Gravity waves, compensating subsidence, and detrainment around cumulus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci.,46, 740–759.

  • Cheng, M.-D., and M. Yanai, 1989: Effects of downdrafts and mesoscale convective organization on the heat and moisture budgets of tropical cloud clusters. Part III: Effects of mesoscale convective organization. J. Atmos. Sci.,46, 1566–1588.

  • Clark T. L., W. D. Hall, and J. L. Coen, 1996: Source code documentation for the Clark–Hall cloud-scale model: Code version G3CH01. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-426+STR, 137 pp. [Available from NCAR Information Service, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307.].

  • Cotton, W. R., and R. A. Anthes, 1989: Storm and Cloud Dynamics. Academic Press Int. Geophys. Ser., Vol. 44, 883 pp.

  • Cox, S. K., and K. T. Griffith, 1979: Estimates of radiative divergence during phase III of the GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment. Part II: Analysis of Phase III results. J. Atmos. Sci.,36, 586–601.

  • Dudhia, J., and M. W. Moncrieff, 1987: A numerical simulation of quasi-stationary tropical convective bands. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,113, 929–967.

  • ——, and ——, 1989: A three-dimensional numerical study of an Oklahoma squall line containing right-flank supercells. J. Atmos. Sci.,46, 3363–3391.

  • Esbensen, S. K., and M. J. McPhaden, 1996: Enhancement of tropical ocean evaporation and sensible heat flux by atmospheric mesoscale systems. J. Climate,9, 2307–2325.

  • Fu, Q., and K. N. Liou, 1992: On the correlated k-distribution method for radiative transfer in nonhomogeneous atmospheres. J. Atmos. Sci.,49, 2139–2156.

  • ——, and ——, 1993: Parameterization of the radiative properties of cirrus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci.,50, 2008–2025.

  • ——, S. K. Krueger, and K. N. Liou, 1995: Interactions between radiation and convection in simulated tropical cloud clusters. J. Atmos. Sci.,52, 1310–1328.

  • Grabowski, W. W., X. Wu, and M. W. Moncrieff, 1996: Cloud resolving modeling of tropical cloud systems during Phase III of GATE. Part I: Two-dimensional experiments. J. Atmos. Sci.,53, 3684–3709.

  • Holle, R. L., J. Simpson, and S. W. Leavitt, 1979: GATE B—scale cloudiness from whole-sky camera on four U.S. ships. Mon. Wea. Rev.,107, 874–895.

  • Houze, R. A., 1977: Structure and dynamics of a tropical squall-line system. Mon. Wea. Rev.,105, 1540–1567.

  • Hudlow, M. D., and V. L. Patterson, 1979: GATE Radar Rainfall Atlas. Environmental Data and Information Service, NOAA, 155 pp. [Available from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402; Stock No. 003-019-00046-2.].

  • Jabouille, P., J. L. Redelsperger, and J. P. Lafore, 1996: Modifications of surface fluxes by atmospheric convection in the TOGA COARE region. Mon. Wea. Rev.,124, 816–837.

  • Kessler, E., 1969: On the Distribution and Continuity of Water Substance in Atmospheric Circulations. Meteor. Monogr., No. 32, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 1–84.

  • Klemp, J. B., and R. B. Wilhelmson, 1978: Simulations of right- and left-moving storms produced through storm splitting. J. Atmos. Sci.,35, 1097–1110.

  • Koenig, L. R., and F. W. Murray, 1976: Ice-bearing cumulus cloud evolution: Numerical simulation and general comparison against observations. J. Appl. Meteor.,15, 747–762.

  • Krishnamurti, T. N., V. Wong, H.-L. Pan, G. V. Dam, and D. McClellan, 1976: Sea surface temperatures for GATE. Department of Meteorology Rep. 76-3, The Florida State University, 268 pp. [Available from Dept. of Meteorology, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306.].

  • Leary, C. A., 1979: Behavior of the wind field in the vicinity of a cloud cluster in the intertropical convergence zone. J. Atmos. Sci.,36, 631–639.

  • ——, and R. A. Houze, 1979: The structure and evolution of convection in a tropical cloud cluster. J. Atmos. Sci.,36, 437–457.

  • LeMone, M. A., G. M. Barnes, and E. J. Zipser, 1984: Momentum flux by lines of cumulonimbus over the tropical oceans. J. Atmos. Sci.,41, 1914–1932.

  • Lipps, F. B., and R. S. Hemler, 1986: Numerical simulation of deep tropical convection associated with large-scale convergence. J. Atmos. Sci.,43, 1796–1816.

  • Miller, M. J., and M. W. Moncrieff, 1983: The use and implementation of dynamical cloud model in a parameterization scheme for deep convection. Proc. Workshop on Convection in Large-Scale Numerical Models, Reading, UK, ECMWF, 33–65.

  • Moeng, C.-H., W. R. Cotton, C. Bretherton, A. Chlond, M. Khairoutdinov, S. Krueger, W. S. Lewellen, M. K. McVean, J. R. M. Pasquier, H. A. Rand, A. P. Siebesma, R. I. Sykes, and B. Stevens, 1996: Simulations of stratocumulus-topped PBL: Intercomparison of different numerical codes. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,77, 261–278.

  • Moncrieff, M. W., 1981: A theory of organized steady convection and its transport properties. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,107, 29–50.

  • ——, and M. J. Miller, 1976: The dynamics and simulation of tropical cumulonimbus and squall line. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,102, 373–394.

  • Redelsperger, J.-L., and J.-P. Lafore, 1988: A three-dimensional simulation of a tropical squall line: Convective organization and thermodynamic vertical transport. J. Atmos. Sci.,45, 1334–1356.

  • Reid, G. C., and K. S. Gage, 1996: The tropical tropopause over the western Pacific: Wave driving, convection and the annual cycle. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 21 233–21 241.

  • Rotunno, R., J. B. Klemp, and M. L. Weisman, 1988: A theory for strong, long-lived squall lines. J. Atmos. Sci.,45, 463–485.

  • Skamarock, W. C., M. L. Weisman, and J. B. Klemp, 1994: Three-dimensional evolution of simulated long-lived squall lines. J. Atmos. Sci.,51, 2563–2584.

  • Stith, J. L., 1995: In situ measurements and observations of cumulonimbus mamma. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 907–914.

  • Sui, C.-H., and M. Yanai, 1986: Cumulus ensemble effects on the large-scale vorticity and momentum fields of GATE. Part I: Observational evidence. J. Atmos. Sci.,43, 1618–1642.

  • Tao, W.-K., and S.-T. Soong, 1986: A study of the response of deep tropical clouds to mesoscale processes: Three-dimensional numerical experiments. J. Atmos. Sci.,43, 2653–2676.

  • ——, J. Simpson, and S.-T. Soong, 1987: Statistical properties of a cloud ensemble: A numerical study. J. Atmos. Sci.,44, 3175–3187.

  • Thompson, R. M., S. W. Payne, E. E. Recker, and R. J. Reed, 1979:Structure and properties of synoptic-scale wave disturbances in the intertropical convergence zone of the eastern Atlantic. J. Atmos. Sci.,36, 53–72.

  • Thorpe, A. J., and M. J. Miller, 1978: Numerical simulations showing the role of the downdraught in cumulonimbus motion and splitting. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,104, 973–893.

  • Werne, J., 1993: Structure of hard-turbulent convection in two dimensions: Numerical evidence. Phys. Rev. E,48, 1020–1035.

  • Wu, X., W. W. Grabowski, and M. W. Moncrieff, 1998: Long-term behavior of cloud systems in TOGA COARE and their interactions with radiative and surface processes. Part I: Two-dimensional modeling study. J. Atmos. Sci.,55, 2693–2714.

  • Xu, K.-M., and D. A. Randall, 1996: Explicit simulation of cumulus ensembles with the GATE Phase III data: Comparison with observations. J. Atmos. Sci.,53, 3709–3736.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 219 219 10
PDF Downloads 30 30 4

Cloud-Resolving Modeling of Cloud Systems during Phase III of GATE. Part II: Effects of Resolution and the Third Spatial Dimension

View More View Less
  • 1 National Center for Atmospheric Research,* Boulder, Colorado
© Get Permissions Rent on DeepDyve
Restricted access

Abstract

Two- and three-dimensional simulations of cloud systems for the period of 1–7 September 1974 in phase III of the Global Atmospheric Research Programme (GARP) Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) are performed using the approach discussed in Part I of this paper. The aim is to reproduce cloud systems over the GATE B-scale sounding array. Comparison is presented between three experiments driven by the same large-scale conditions: (i) a fully three-dimensional experiment, (ii) a two-dimensional experiment that is an east–west section of the three-dimensional case, and (iii) a high-resolution version of the two-dimensional experiment. Differences between two- and three-dimensional frameworks and those related to spatial resolution are analyzed.

The three-dimensional experiment produced a qualitatively realistic organization of convection: nonsquall clusters, a squall line, and scattered convection and transitions between regimes were simulated. The two-dimensional experiments produced convective organization similar to that discussed in Part I. The thermodynamic fields evolved very similarly in all three experiments, although differences between model fields and observations did occur. When averaged over a few hours, surface sensible and latent heat fluxes and surface precipitation evolved very similarly in all three experiments and evaluated well against observations. Model resolution had some effect on the upper-troposheric cloud cover and consequently on the upper-tropospheric temperature tendency due to radiative flux divergence. When compared with the fully three-dimensional results, the two-dimensional simulations produced a much higher temporal variability of domain-averaged quantities.

The results support the notion that, as long as high-frequency temporal variability is not of primary importance, low-resolution two-dimensional simulations can be used as realizations of tropical cloud systems in the climate problem and for improving and/or testing cloud parameterizations for large-scale models.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Wojciech W. Grabowski, NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000.

Email: grabow@ncar.ucar.edu.

Abstract

Two- and three-dimensional simulations of cloud systems for the period of 1–7 September 1974 in phase III of the Global Atmospheric Research Programme (GARP) Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) are performed using the approach discussed in Part I of this paper. The aim is to reproduce cloud systems over the GATE B-scale sounding array. Comparison is presented between three experiments driven by the same large-scale conditions: (i) a fully three-dimensional experiment, (ii) a two-dimensional experiment that is an east–west section of the three-dimensional case, and (iii) a high-resolution version of the two-dimensional experiment. Differences between two- and three-dimensional frameworks and those related to spatial resolution are analyzed.

The three-dimensional experiment produced a qualitatively realistic organization of convection: nonsquall clusters, a squall line, and scattered convection and transitions between regimes were simulated. The two-dimensional experiments produced convective organization similar to that discussed in Part I. The thermodynamic fields evolved very similarly in all three experiments, although differences between model fields and observations did occur. When averaged over a few hours, surface sensible and latent heat fluxes and surface precipitation evolved very similarly in all three experiments and evaluated well against observations. Model resolution had some effect on the upper-troposheric cloud cover and consequently on the upper-tropospheric temperature tendency due to radiative flux divergence. When compared with the fully three-dimensional results, the two-dimensional simulations produced a much higher temporal variability of domain-averaged quantities.

The results support the notion that, as long as high-frequency temporal variability is not of primary importance, low-resolution two-dimensional simulations can be used as realizations of tropical cloud systems in the climate problem and for improving and/or testing cloud parameterizations for large-scale models.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Wojciech W. Grabowski, NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000.

Email: grabow@ncar.ucar.edu.

Save