• Ahlquist, J. E., 1985: Climatology of normal mode Rossby waves. J. Atmos. Sci.,42, 2059–2068.

  • Cheong, H.-B., and R. Kimura, 1997: Excitation of the 5-day wave by Antarctica. J. Atmos. Sci.,54, 87–102.

  • Chou, M. D., 1991: Infrared radiation parameterizations in numerical climate models. J. Climate,4, 424–437.

  • Deland, R. J., 1964: Traveling planetary waves. Tellus,16, 271–273.

  • Eliasen, E., and B. Machenhauer, 1965: A study of the fluctuations of the atmospheric planetary flow patterns represented by spherical harmonics. Tellus,17, 220–238.

  • ——, and ——, 1969: On the observed large-scale atmospheric wave motions. Tellus,21, 149–165.

  • Fomichev, V. I., and G. M. Shved, 1985: Parameterization of the radiative flux divergence in the 9.6 μm O3 band. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys.,47, 1037–1049.

  • ——, A. A. Kutepov, R. A. Akmaev, and G. M. Shved, 1993: Parameterization of the 15 μm CO2 band cooling in the middle atmosphere (15–115 km). J. Atmos. Terr. Phys.,55, 7–18.

  • Garcia, R. R., and J. E. Geisler, 1981: Stochastic forcing of small-amplitude oscillations in the stratosphere. J. Atmos. Sci.,38, 2187–2197.

  • ——, and M. L. Salby, 1987: Transient response to localized episodic heating in the Tropics. Part II: Far-field behavior. J. Atmos. Sci.,44, 499–530.

  • Geisler, J. E., and R. E. Dickinson, 1976: The five-day wave on a sphere with realistic zonal winds. J. Atmos. Sci.,33, 632–641.

  • Hamilton, K., 1985: A possible relationship between tropical ocean temperatures and the observed amplitude of the atmospheric (1, 1) Rossby normal mode. J. Geophys. Res.,90, 8071–8074.

  • Hayashi, Y., 1971: A generalized method of resolving disturbances into progressive and retroprogressive waves by space Fourier and time cross-spectral analyses. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,49, 125–128.

  • ——, and D. G. Golder, 1983a: Transient planetary waves simulated by GFDL spectral general circulation models. Part I: Effects of mountains. J. Atmos. Sci.,40, 941–950.

  • ——, and ——, 1983b: Transient planetary waves simulated by GFDL spectral general circulation models. Part I: Effects of nonlinear energy transfer. J. Atmos. Sci.,40, 951–957.

  • Hirooka, T., and I. Hirota, 1985: Normal mode Rossby waves observed in the upper stratosphere. Part II: Second antisymmetric modes of zonal wavenumbers 1 and 2. J. Atmos. Sci.,42, 536–548.

  • Hirota, I., and T. Hirooka, 1984: Normal mode Rossby waves observed in the upper stratosphere. Part I: First symmetric modes of zonal wavenumbers 1 and 2. J. Atmos. Sci.,41, 1253–1267.

  • Horinouchi, T., and S. Yoden, 1996: Excitation of transient waves by localized episodic heating in the Tropics and their propagation into the middle atmosphere. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,74, 189–210.

  • Kanamitsu, M., K. Tada, T. Kudo, N. Sato, and S. Isa, 1983: Description of the JMA operational spectral model. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,61, 812–827.

  • Kuo, H. L., 1974: Further studies of the influence of cumulus convection on the large-scale flow. J. Atmos. Sci.,31, 1232–1240.

  • Lacis, A. A., and J. E. Hansen, 1974: A parameterization for the absorption of solar radiation in the earth’s atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci.,31, 118–133.

  • Madden, R. A., 1978: Further evidence of traveling planetary waves. J. Atmos. Sci.,35, 1605–1618.

  • ——, and P. Julian, 1972: Further evidence of global-scale, 5-day pressure waves. J. Atmos. Sci.,29, 1464–1469.

  • Manzini, E., and K. Hamilton, 1993: Middle atmosphere traveling waves forced by latent and convective heating. J. Atmos. Sci.,50, 2180–2200.

  • Miyahara, S., Y. Yoshida, and Y. Miyoshi, 1993: Dynamic coupling between the lower and upper atmosphere by tides and gravity waves. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys.,55, 1039–1053.

  • Miyoshi, Y., and O. Morita, 1993: Effects of physical processes of H2O on the general circulation of the atmosphere. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,71, 529–544.

  • Ormsby, J. F. A., 1961: Design of numerical filters with applications to missile data processing. J. Assoc. Comput. Mach.,8, 440–466.

  • Salby, M. L., 1981a: Rossby normal modes in nonuniform background configurations. Part I: Simple fields. J. Atmos. Sci.,38, 1803–1826.

  • ——, 1981b: Rossby normal modes in nonuniform background configurations. Part II: Equinox and solstice conditions. J. Atmos. Sci.,38, 1827–1840.

  • ——, and R. R. Garcia, 1987: Transient response to localized episodic heating in the Tropics. Part I: Excitation and short-time near-field behavior. J. Atmos. Sci.,44, 458–498.

  • Speth, P., W. May, and R. A. Madden, 1992: The average behavior of large-scale westward-traveling disturbances evident in the Southern Hemisphere geopotential heights. J. Atmos. Sci.,49, 178–185.

  • Weber, R. O., and R. A. Madden, 1993: Evidence of traveling external Rossby waves in the ECMWF analyses. J. Atmos. Sci.,50, 2994–3007.

  • Wu, D.-H., S. Miyahara, and Y. Miyoshi, 1989: A nonlinear simulation of the thermal diurnal tide. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys.,51, 1017–1030.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 153 26 3
PDF Downloads 42 18 4

A Numerical Experiment of Excitation of the 5-Day Wave by a GCM

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
Restricted access

Abstract

Though normal mode Rossby waves frequently appear in the troposphere and the stratosphere, excitation mechanisms of normal mode Rossby waves are not clear. In this study, excitation mechanisms of the 5-day wave, which is one of the normal mode Rossby waves, are investigated by a series of general circulation model (GCM) experiments. The results of the numerical simulation show that the amplitude of the 5-day wave simulated by the GCM with uniform lower boundaries is similar to that with the realistic topography. On the other hand, the amplitude of the 5-day wave without moist convection is much smaller than that with realistic topography. The amplitude of the 5-day wave grows when the rainfall amplitude in the 5-day range is large. These results indicate that heating due to moist convection is most important for excitation of the 5-day wave.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Yasunobu Miyoshi, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan.

Email: miyoshi@rossby.geo.kyushu-u.ac.jp

Abstract

Though normal mode Rossby waves frequently appear in the troposphere and the stratosphere, excitation mechanisms of normal mode Rossby waves are not clear. In this study, excitation mechanisms of the 5-day wave, which is one of the normal mode Rossby waves, are investigated by a series of general circulation model (GCM) experiments. The results of the numerical simulation show that the amplitude of the 5-day wave simulated by the GCM with uniform lower boundaries is similar to that with the realistic topography. On the other hand, the amplitude of the 5-day wave without moist convection is much smaller than that with realistic topography. The amplitude of the 5-day wave grows when the rainfall amplitude in the 5-day range is large. These results indicate that heating due to moist convection is most important for excitation of the 5-day wave.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Yasunobu Miyoshi, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan.

Email: miyoshi@rossby.geo.kyushu-u.ac.jp

Save