• Asencio, N., J. P. Lafore, P. Pires, and J. L. Redelsperger, 1993: Analyses quotidiennes du Cepmmt durant la periode d’observations intensives de l’experience TOGA/COARE. METEO FRANCE Groupe de Meteorologie a Moyenne Echelle Note de Travail 12, 243 pp. [Available from La Librairie de Meteo-France, 2 Avenue Rapp, 75340 Paris Cedex 07 France.].

  • Bond, G., and D. Alexander, 1994: TOGA COARE Meteorology Atlas. TOGA COARE International Project Office, 366 pp.

  • Chang, H.-R., and R. L. Grossman, 1999: Evaluation of bulk surface flux algorithms for light wind conditions using data from the Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Response Experiment (COARE). Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., in press.

  • Fairall, C. W., E. F. Bradley, D. P. Rogers, J. B. Edson, and G. S. Young, 1996: Bulk parameterization of air-sea fluxes for Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 3747–3764.

  • Kustas, W. P., T. J. Schmugge, and L. E. Hipps, 1996: On using mixed-layer transport parameterizations with radiometric surface skin temperature for computing regional scale sensible heat flux. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,80, 205–221.

  • Miller, E. R., and R. B. Friesen, 1989: Standard output products from the NCAR Research Aviation Facility. NCAR Research Aviation Facility Bulletin 9, 70 pp.

  • Otles, Z., and J. A. Young, 1996: Influence of shallow cumuli on subcloud turbulence fluxes analyzed from aircraft data. J. Atmos. Sci.,53, 665–676.

  • Press, W., B. Flannery, S. Teukolsky, and W. Vetterling, 1986: Numerical Recipes. Cambridge University Press, 818 pp.

  • Stull, R., 1988: An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 666 pp.

  • ——, 1994: A convective transport theory for surface fluxes. J. Atmos. Sci.,51, 3–22.

  • ——, 1997: Reply. J. Atmos. Sci.,54, 579.

  • Sun, J., J. F. Howell, S. K. Esbensen, L. Mahrt, C. M. Greb, R. Grossman, and M. A. LeMone, 1996: Scale dependence of air–sea fluxes over the western equatorial Pacific. J. Atmos. Sci.,53, 2997–3012.

  • TCIPO, 1992: TOGA COARE Operations Plan. TOGA COARE International Project Office, 391 pp. [Available from TCIPO UCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307.].

  • ——, 1993: TOGA COARE Intensive Operations Period Operations Summary. TOGA COARE International Project Office, 506 pp. [Available from TCIPO UCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307.].

  • TOGA COARE Flux Group, cited 1996: TOGA COARE Aircraft Offset Table. [Available online at http://www.wave.eng.uci.edu/Projects/Toga_Cepex/togacoare.html.].

  • Tsukamoto, O., and H. Ishida, 1995: Turbulent flux measurements and energy budget analysis over the eqauatorial Pacific during TOGA-COARE IOP. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,73, 557–568.

  • Webster, P. J., and R. Lukas, 1992: TOGA COARE: The Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,73, 1377–1416.

  • Williams, A. G., H. Kraus, and J. M. Hacker, 1996: Transport processes in the tropical warm pool boundary layer. Part I: Spectral composition of fluxes. J. Atmos. Sci.,53, 1187–1202.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 188 32 4
PDF Downloads 27 10 1

Convective Transport Theory for Surface Fluxes Tested over the Western Pacific Warm Pool

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Wisconsin—Madison, Madison, Wisconsin
  • | 2 Atmospheric Science Programme, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Restricted access

Abstract

Turbulent flux measurements from five flights of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Electra aircraft during the Tropical Oceans and Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) are used to test convective transport theory (CTT) for a marine boundary layer. Flights during light to moderate winds and under the clearest sky conditions available were chosen. Fluxes of heat, moisture, and momentum were observed by the eddy-correlation method. Mean kinematic values for the observed sensible and latent heat fluxes and momentum flux were 0.0061 K m s−1, 0.0313 g kg−1 m s−1, and 0.0195 m2 s−2, respectively.

For the range of mixed-layer wind speeds (0.8–8.4 m s−1) studied here, the version of CTT that includes the mixed effects of buoyant and shear-driven transport give a better fit to the observations than either the COARE bulk algorithm or the pure free-convection version of CTT. This is to be expected because both of those latter parameterizations were designed for light winds (<5 m s−1 approximately).

The CTT empirical coefficients listed in exhibited slight sensitivity to the COARE light flux conditions, compared to their previous estimates during larger fluxes over land. For example, COARE heat fluxes were roughly 10 times smaller than previous land-based flux measurements used to calculate CTT coefficients, but the corresponding empirical mixed-layer transport coefficients were only 3% smaller. COARE momentum fluxes were also roughly 10 times smaller, but the CTT coefficients were about four times smaller. The greater variation in momentum coefficient may be due, in part, to insufficient flight-leg length used to compute momentum fluxes, to uncertainties in the effects of the ocean surface current and waves, or perhaps to roughness differences.

Corresponding author address: Prof. Roland Stull, Atmospheric Science Programme, Department of Geography, 1984 West Mall, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z2, Canada.

Email: rstull@geog.ubc.ca

Abstract

Turbulent flux measurements from five flights of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Electra aircraft during the Tropical Oceans and Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) are used to test convective transport theory (CTT) for a marine boundary layer. Flights during light to moderate winds and under the clearest sky conditions available were chosen. Fluxes of heat, moisture, and momentum were observed by the eddy-correlation method. Mean kinematic values for the observed sensible and latent heat fluxes and momentum flux were 0.0061 K m s−1, 0.0313 g kg−1 m s−1, and 0.0195 m2 s−2, respectively.

For the range of mixed-layer wind speeds (0.8–8.4 m s−1) studied here, the version of CTT that includes the mixed effects of buoyant and shear-driven transport give a better fit to the observations than either the COARE bulk algorithm or the pure free-convection version of CTT. This is to be expected because both of those latter parameterizations were designed for light winds (<5 m s−1 approximately).

The CTT empirical coefficients listed in exhibited slight sensitivity to the COARE light flux conditions, compared to their previous estimates during larger fluxes over land. For example, COARE heat fluxes were roughly 10 times smaller than previous land-based flux measurements used to calculate CTT coefficients, but the corresponding empirical mixed-layer transport coefficients were only 3% smaller. COARE momentum fluxes were also roughly 10 times smaller, but the CTT coefficients were about four times smaller. The greater variation in momentum coefficient may be due, in part, to insufficient flight-leg length used to compute momentum fluxes, to uncertainties in the effects of the ocean surface current and waves, or perhaps to roughness differences.

Corresponding author address: Prof. Roland Stull, Atmospheric Science Programme, Department of Geography, 1984 West Mall, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z2, Canada.

Email: rstull@geog.ubc.ca

Save