• Ackerman, S. A., and S. K. Cox, 1987: Radiative energy budget estimates for the 1979 southwest summer monsoon. J. Atmos. Sci.,44, 3052–3078.

  • Ackerman, T. P., K.-N. Liou, F. P. J. Valero, and L. Pfister, 1988: Heating rates in tropical anvils. J. Atmos. Sci.,45, 1606–1623.

  • Albrecht, B. A., M. P. Jensen, and W. J. Syrett, 1995: Marine boundary layer structure and fractional cloudiness. J. Geophys. Res.,100, 14 209–14 222.

  • Ardanuy, P. E., L. L. Stowe, A. Gruber, and M. Weiss, 1991: Shortwave, longwave and net cloud-radiative forcing as determined from Nimbus 7 observations. J. Geophys. Res.,96, 18 537–18 549.

  • Cess, R. D., and Coauthors, 1995: Absorption of solar radiation by clouds: Observations versus models. Science,267, 496–499.

  • Christy, J. R., 1991: Diabatic heating rate estimates from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analyses. J. Geophys. Res.,96, 5123–5135.

  • Chou, M.-D., A. Arking, and W. L. Ridgway, 1995: The effect of clouds on atmospheric heating. Geophys. Res. Lett.,22, 1885–1888.

  • ——, W. Zhao, and S.-H. Chou, 1998: Radiation budgets and cloud radiative forcing in the Pacific warm pool during TOGA COARE. J. Geophys. Res.,103, 16 967–16 978.

  • Cox, S. K., and K. T. Griffith, 1979: Estimates of radiative divergence during Phase III of the GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment: Part I. Methodology. J. Atmos. Sci.,36, 576–585.

  • Darnell W. L., W. F. Staylor, S. K. Gupta, N. A. Ritchey, and A. C. Wilber, 1992: Seasonal variation of surface radiation budget derived from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project C1 data. J. Geophys. Res.,97, 15 741–15 760.

  • Doswell, C. A., III, 1985: The operational meteorology of convective weather. Volume II: Storm scale analysis. NOAA Tech. Memo. ERL ESG-15, 240 pp. [Available from U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402.].

  • Ellingson, R., J. Ellis, and S. Fels, 1991: The intercomparison of radiation codes used in climate models: Longwave results. J. Geophys. Res.,96, 8929–8953.

  • Gray, W. M., and R. W. Jacobson, 1977: Diurnal variation of deep cumulus convection. Mon. Wea. Rev.,105, 1171–1188.

  • Griffith, K., S. K. Cox, and R. G. Knollenberg, 1980: Infrared properties of tropical cirrus clouds inferred from aircraft measurements. J. Atmos. Sci.,37, 1077–1087.

  • Gupta, S. K., 1989: A parameterization for longwave surface radiation from sun-synchronous satellite data. J. Climate,2, 305–320.

  • Hartmann, D. L., M. H. Hendon, and R. A. House, 1984: Some implication of the mesoscale circulations in tropical cloud clusters for large-scale dynamics and climate. J. Atmos. Sci.,41, 113–121.

  • Heymsfield, A. T., and C. M. R. Platt, 1984: A parameterization of the particle size spectrum of ice clouds in terms of the ambient temperature and the ice water content. J. Atmos. Sci.,41, 846–855.

  • Klenk, K. F., P. K. Bhartia, E. Hilsenrath, and A. J. Fleig, 1983: Standard ozone profile from balloon and satellite data sets. J. Climate Appl. Meteor.,22, 2012–2022.

  • Lau, K.-M., and L. Peng, 1987: Origin of low-frequency (intraseasonal) oscillations in the tropical atmosphere. Part I: Basic theory. J. Atmos. Sci.,44, 950–972.

  • Li, Z., and L. Moreau, 1996: Alteration of atmospheric solar absorption by clouds: Simulation and observation. J. Appl. Meteor.,35, 653–670.

  • Liou, K. N., 1986: Influence of cirrus clouds on weather and climate processes: A global perspective. Mon. Wea. Rev.,114, 1167–1199.

  • ——, and G. D. Wittman, 1979: Parameterization of the radiative properties of clouds. J. Atmos. Sci.,36, 1261–1273.

  • Liu, G., J. A. Curry, and R.-S. Sheu, 1995: Classification of clouds over the western Pacific Ocean using combined infrared and microwave satellite data. J. Geophys. Res.,100, 13 811–13 826.

  • Manabe, S., and R. T. Wetherald, 1967: Thermal equilibrium of the atmosphere with a given distribution of the relative humidity. J. Atmos. Sci.,24, 241–259.

  • Mehta, A. V., and E. A. Smith, 1997: Variability of radiative cooling during the Asian summer monsoon and its influence on intraseasonal waves. J. Atmos. Sci.,54, 941–966.

  • Ockert-Bell, M. E., and D. L. Hartmann, 1992: The effect of cloud type on earth’s energy balance: Results for selected regions. J. Climate,5, 1157–1171.

  • Oort, A. H., 1983: Global atmospheric circulation statistics, 1958–1973. NOAA Prof. Paper 14, NOAA/Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ, 180 pp.

  • Paltridge, G. W., and C. M. R. Platt, 1981: Aircraft measurements of solar and infrared radiation and the microphysics of cirrus cloud. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,107, 367–380.

  • Pinker, R., and I. Laszlo, 1992: Modeling surface solar irradiance for satellite applications on a global scale. J. Appl. Meteor.,31, 194–211.

  • Platt, C. M. R., 1976: Infrared absorption and liquid water content in stratocumulus clouds. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,102, 553–561.

  • Ramanathan, V., R. D. Cess, E. F. Harrison, P. Minnis, B. R. Barkstrom, E. Ahmad, and D. Hartmann, 1989: Cloud-radiative forcing and climate: Results from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. Science,243, 57–63.

  • Randall, D. A., Harshvardhan, D. D. Dazlich, and T. G. Corsetti, 1989: Interactions among radiation, convection, and large-scale dynamics in a general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci.,46, 1943–1970.

  • Rossow, W. B., and A. A. Lacis, 1990: Global, seasonal cloud variations from satellite radiance measurements. Part II: Cloud properties and radiative effects. J. Climate,3, 1204–1253.

  • ——, and R. A. Schiffer, 1991: ISCCP cloud data products. Bull. Amer Meteor. Soc.,72, 2–20.

  • Sasamori, T. J., J. London, and D. V. Hoyt, 1972: Radiation budget of the Southern Hemisphere. Meteorology of the Southern Hemisphere, Meteor. Monogr., No. 35, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 9–24.

  • Schaack, T. K., and D. R. Johnson, 1994: January and July global distributions of atmospheric heating for 1986, 1987, and 1988. J. Climate,7, 1270–1285.

  • Sherwood, S. C., V. Ramanathan, T. P. Barnett, M. K. Tyree, and E. Roeckner, 1994: Response of an atmospheric general circulation model to radiative forcing of tropical clouds. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 20 829–20 845.

  • Slingo, A., and J. M. Slingo, 1988: The response of a general circulation model to cloud longwave radiative forcing. I: Introduction and initial experiments. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,114, 1027–1062.

  • Smith, E. A., and L. Shi, 1992: Surface forcing of the infrared cooling profile over the Tibetan Plateau. Part I: Influence of relative longwave radiative forcing at high latitude. J. Atmos. Sci.,49, 805–822.

  • Sohn, B. J., 1994: Temperature–moisture biases in ECMWF analyses based on clear sky longwave simulations constrained by SSMI and MSU measurements and comparisons to ERBE estimates. J. Climate,7, 1707–1718.

  • ——, and E. A. Smith, 1992: The significance of cloud–radiative forcing to the general circulation on climate time scales—A satellite interpretation. J. Atmos. Sci.,49, 845–860.

  • ——, and F. R. Robertson, 1993: Intercomparison of observed cloud radiative forcing: A zonal and global perspective. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,74, 997–1006.

  • Stephens, G. L., 1978: Radiation profiles in extended water clouds. II: Parameterization scheme. J. Atmos. Sci.,35, 2123–2132.

  • ——, and S.-C. Tsay, 1990: On the cloud absorption anomaly. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,116, 671–704.

  • Stuhlmann, R., and G. L. Smith, 1988: A study of cloud-generated radiative heating and its generation of available potential energy. Part II: Results for a climatological zonal mean January. J. Atmos. Sci.,45, 3928–3943.

  • Tao, W.-K., S. Lang, J. Simpson, C.-H. Sui, B. Ferrier, and M.-D. Chou, 1996: Mechanisms of cloud–radiation interaction in the Tropics and midlatitudes. J. Atmos. Sci.,53, 2624–2651.

  • Weare, B. C., 1995: Factors controlling ERBE longwave clear sky and cloud forcing fluxes. J. Climate,8, 1889–1899.

  • Webster, P. J., 1994: The role of hydrological processes in ocean–atmosphere interactions. Rev. Geophys.,32, 427–476.

  • ——, and G. L. Stephens, 1980: Tropical upper-tropospheric extended clouds: Inferences from Winter MONEX. J. Atmos. Sci.,37, 1521–1541.

  • Zhang, Y.-C., W. B. Rossow, and A. A. Lacis, 1995: Calculation of surface and top of atmosphere radiative fluxes from physical quantities based on ISCCP data sets. 1. Method and sensitivity to input data uncertainties. J. Geophys. Res.,100, 1149–1165.

  • Zillman, J. W., 1972: Isentropically time-averaged mass circulations in the Southern Hemisphere. Ph.D. thesis, University of Wisconsin—Madison, 205 pp.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 158 126 2
PDF Downloads 44 20 1

Cloud-Induced Infrared Radiative Heating and Its Implications for Large-Scale Tropical Circulations

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Earth Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
© Get Permissions Rent on DeepDyve
Restricted access

Abstract

Three-dimensional global distributions of longwave radiative cooling for the summer of 1988 and the winter of 1989 are generated from radiative transfer calculations using European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts temperature and humidity profiles and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project cloudiness as inputs. By adding the cooling of the clear atmosphere to the total radiative heating, cloud-induced atmospheric radiative heating has been obtained. Emphasis is placed on the impact of horizontal gradients of the cloud-generated radiative heating on the global atmospheric circulation. Cloud-induced heating, whose general pattern is well in agreement with total diabatic heating suggested by other studies, exhibits its maximum heating areas within the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific. By contrast, maximum cooling areas are found in the northern and southern flanks of the Indian Ocean, and over the eastern Pacific off the west coasts of both North and South America. The fact that these heating and cooling distributions reinforce the climatologically favored heating gradients both in the meridional and zonal directions indicates that cloud-radiative feedback can enhance the strength of both the north–south Hadley circulation and the east–west Walker circulation.

Corresponding author address: Dr. B. J. Sohn, Department of Earth Sciences, Room 24-303, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea.

Email: sohnbj@snu.ac.kr

Abstract

Three-dimensional global distributions of longwave radiative cooling for the summer of 1988 and the winter of 1989 are generated from radiative transfer calculations using European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts temperature and humidity profiles and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project cloudiness as inputs. By adding the cooling of the clear atmosphere to the total radiative heating, cloud-induced atmospheric radiative heating has been obtained. Emphasis is placed on the impact of horizontal gradients of the cloud-generated radiative heating on the global atmospheric circulation. Cloud-induced heating, whose general pattern is well in agreement with total diabatic heating suggested by other studies, exhibits its maximum heating areas within the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific. By contrast, maximum cooling areas are found in the northern and southern flanks of the Indian Ocean, and over the eastern Pacific off the west coasts of both North and South America. The fact that these heating and cooling distributions reinforce the climatologically favored heating gradients both in the meridional and zonal directions indicates that cloud-radiative feedback can enhance the strength of both the north–south Hadley circulation and the east–west Walker circulation.

Corresponding author address: Dr. B. J. Sohn, Department of Earth Sciences, Room 24-303, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea.

Email: sohnbj@snu.ac.kr

Save