• Appenzeller, C., J. R. Holton, and K. H. Rosenlof, 1996: Seasonal variation of mass transport across the tropopause. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 15 071–15 078.

  • Bethan, S., G. Vaughan, and S. J. Reid, 1996: A comparison of ozone and thermal tropopause heights and the impact of tropopause definition on quantifying the ozone content of the troposphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,122, 929–944.

  • Boer, G. J., and Coauthors, 1992: Some results from an intercomparison of the climates simulated by 14 atmospheric general circulation models. J. Geophys. Res.,97, 12 771–12 786.

  • Chen, M. H., and J. R. Bates, 1996: A comparison of climate simulations from a semi-Lagrangian and an Eulerian GCM. J. Climate,9, 1126–1148.

  • Danielsen, E. F., 1993: In situ evidence of rapid, vertical, irreversible transport of lower tropospheric air into the lower tropical stratosphere by convective cloud turrets and by larger-scale upwelling in tropical cyclones. J. Geophys. Res.,98, 8665–8681.

  • Forster, P. M. de F., R. S. Freckleton, and K. P. Shine, 1997: On aspects of the concept of radiative forcing. Climate Dyn.,13, 547–560.

  • Goody, R. M., 1964: Atmospheric Radiation, I: Theoretical Basis. Clarendon Press, 436 pp.

  • Haynes, P. H., C. J. Marks, M. E. McIntyre, T. G. Shepherd, and K. P. Shine, 1991: On the “downward control” of extratropical diabatic circulations by eddy-induced mean zonal forces. J. Atmos. Sci.,48, 651–678.

  • Held, I. M., 1982: On the height of the tropopause and the static stability of the troposphere. J. Atmos. Sci.,39, 412–417.

  • Highwood, E. J., and B. J. Hoskins, 1998: The tropical tropopause. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,124, 1579–1604.

  • Hoerling, M. P., T. K. Shaack, and A. J. Lenzen, 1991: Global objective tropopause analysis. Mon. Wea. Rev.,119, 1816–1831.

  • IPCC, 1994: Radiative forcing. Climate change (1994) Radiative forcing of climate change and an evaluation of IPCC IS92 emission scenarios, J. T. Houghton, et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press, 163–199.

  • Johnson, D. R., 1997: “General coldness of climate models” and the second law: Implications for modeling the Earth system. J. Climate,10, 2826–2846.

  • Lewis, R. P. W., Ed., 1991: Meteorological Glossary. 6th ed., HMSO, 335 pp.

  • Lowe, P. R., 1977: An approximating polynomial for the computation of saturation vapor pressure. J. Appl. Meteor.,16, 100–103.

  • Mahlman, J. D., H. Levy II, and W. J. Moxim, 1986: Three-dimensional simulations of stratospheric N2O: Predictions for other trace constituents. J. Geophys. Res.,91, 2687–2707.

  • Morcrette, J.-J., 1990: Impact of changes to the radiation transfer parametrizations plus cloud optical properties in the ECMWF model. Mon. Wea. Rev.,118, 847–873.

  • Mote, P. W., and Coauthors, 1996: An atmospheric tape recorder: The imprint of tropical tropopause temperatures on stratospheric water vapor. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 3989–4006.

  • Randel, W. J., 1992: Global atmospheric circulation statistics, 1000-1mb. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-366+STR, 256 pp. [Available from National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000 Boulder, CO 80307-3000.].

  • Rosenlof, K. H., 1995: Seasonal cycle of the residual mean meridional circulation in the stratosphere. J. Geophys. Res.,100, 5173–5191.

  • Shine, K. P., 1989: Sources and sinks of zonal momentum in the middle atmosphere diagnosed using the diabatic circulation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,115, 265–292.

  • Sinha, A., and K. P. Shine, 1994: A one-dimensional study of possible cirrus cloud feedbacks. J. Climate,7, 158–173.

  • Thuburn, J., and G. C. Craig, 1997: GCM tests of theories for the height of the tropopause. J. Atmos. Sci.,54, 869–882.

  • Webster, S., J. Thuburn, B. J. Hoskins, and M. Rodwell, 1999: Further development of a hybrid-isentropic GCM. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,125, 2305–2331.

  • Yulaeva, E., J. R. Holton, and J. M. Wallace, 1994: On the cause of the annual cycle in the lower tropical stratospheric temperature. J. Atmos. Sci.,51, 169–174.

  • Zhang, C., 1993: On the annual cycle in highest, coldest clouds in the Tropics. J. Climate,6, 1987–1990.

  • Zhong, W., and J. D. Haigh, 1995: Improved broadband emissivity parameterization for water vapor cooling rate calculations. J. Atmos. Sci.,52, 124–138.

  • ——, R. Toumi, and J. D. Haigh, 1996: Climate forcing by stratospheric ozone depletion calculated from observed temperature trends. Geophys. Res. Lett.,23, 3183–3186.

  • Zhu, Z., and E. K. Schneider, 1997: Improvement in stratosphere simulation with a hybrid σθ coordinate GCM. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,123, 2095–2113.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 51 51 14
PDF Downloads 32 32 12

Stratospheric Influence on Tropopause Height: The Radiative Constraint

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom
  • | 2 Joint Centre for Mesoscale Meteorology, Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

Earlier theoretical and modeling work introduced the concept of a radiative constraint relating tropopause height to tropospheric lapse rate and other factors such as surface temperature. Here a minimal quantitative model for the radiative constraint is presented and used to illustrate the essential physics underlying the radiative constraint, which involves the approximate balance between absorption and emission of thermal infrared (IR) radiation determining tropopause temperature.

The results of the minimal model are then extended in two ways. First, the effects of including a more realistic treatment of IR radiation are quantified. Second, the radiative constraint model is extended to take into account non-IR warming processes such as solar heating and dynamical warming near the tropopause. The sensitivity of tropopause height to non-IR warming is estimated to be a few kilometers per K day−1, with positive warming leading to a lower tropopause. Sensitivities comparable to this are found in GCM experiments in which imposed changes in the ozone distribution or in the driving of the stratospheric residual mean meridional circulation lead to changes in tropopause height. In the Tropics the influence of the stratospheric circulation is found to extend down at least as far as the main convective outflow level, some 5 km below the temperature minimum.

Corresponding author address: Dr. John Thuburn, Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Earley Gate, P.O. Box 243, Reading RG6 6BB, United Kingdom.

Email: swsthubn@met.rdg.ac.uk

Abstract

Earlier theoretical and modeling work introduced the concept of a radiative constraint relating tropopause height to tropospheric lapse rate and other factors such as surface temperature. Here a minimal quantitative model for the radiative constraint is presented and used to illustrate the essential physics underlying the radiative constraint, which involves the approximate balance between absorption and emission of thermal infrared (IR) radiation determining tropopause temperature.

The results of the minimal model are then extended in two ways. First, the effects of including a more realistic treatment of IR radiation are quantified. Second, the radiative constraint model is extended to take into account non-IR warming processes such as solar heating and dynamical warming near the tropopause. The sensitivity of tropopause height to non-IR warming is estimated to be a few kilometers per K day−1, with positive warming leading to a lower tropopause. Sensitivities comparable to this are found in GCM experiments in which imposed changes in the ozone distribution or in the driving of the stratospheric residual mean meridional circulation lead to changes in tropopause height. In the Tropics the influence of the stratospheric circulation is found to extend down at least as far as the main convective outflow level, some 5 km below the temperature minimum.

Corresponding author address: Dr. John Thuburn, Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Earley Gate, P.O. Box 243, Reading RG6 6BB, United Kingdom.

Email: swsthubn@met.rdg.ac.uk

Save