• Ackerman, A. S., O. B. Toon, and P. V. Hobbs, 1993: Dissipation of marine stratiform clouds and collapse of the marine boundary layer due to the depletion of cloud condensation nuclei by clouds. Science,262, 226–229.

  • Albrecht, B. A., 1989: Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and fractional cloudiness. Science,245, 1227–1230.

  • Arking, A., 1991: The radiative effects of clouds and their impact on climate. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,72, 795–813.

  • Baker, M. B., 1997: Cloud microphysics and climate. Science,276, 1072–1078.

  • ——, R. G. Corbin, and J. Latham, 1980: The influence of entrainment on the evolution of cloud-droplet spectra: I. A model of inhomogeneous mixing. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,106, 581–598.

  • Barker, H. W., 1992: Solar radiative transfer through clouds possessing isotropic variable extinction coefficient. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,118, 1145–1162.

  • ——, 1996: Estimating cloud field albedo using one-dimensional series of optical depth. J. Atmos. Sci.,53, 2826–2837.

  • Blyth, A. M., and J. Latham, 1991: A climatological parameterization for cumulus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci.,48, 2367–2371.

  • Boers, R., and R. M. Mitchell, 1994: Absorption feedback in stratocumulus clouds: Influence on cloud top albedo. Tellus,46A, 229–241.

  • ——, J. B. Jensen, and P. B. Krummel, 1998: Microphysical and short-wave radiative structure of stratocumulus clouds over the Southern Ocean: Summer results and seasonal differences. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,124, 151–168.

  • Bower, K. N., and T. W. Choularton, 1992: A parameterization of the effective radius of ice free clouds for use in global climate models. Atmos. Res.,27, 305–339.

  • Brenguier, J. L., 1991: Parameterization of the condensation process:A theoretical approach. J. Atmos. Sci.,48, 264–282.

  • ——, T. Bourrianne, A. de Araujo Coelho, J. Isbert, R. Peytavi, D. Trevarin, and P. Weschler, 1998: Improvements of droplet size distribution measurements with the Fast-FSSP (Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe). J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,15, 1077–1090.

  • ——, and Coauthors, 2000: An overview of the ACE-2 CLOUDYCOLUMN Closure Experiment. Tellus, in press.

  • Cahalan, R. F., W. Ridgway, J. W. Wiscombe, and T. L. Bell, 1994a:The albedo of fractal stratocumulus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci.,51, 2434–2455.

  • ——, ——, and ——, 1994b: Independent pixel and Monte Carlo estimates of stratocumulus albedo. J. Atmos. Sci.,51, 3776–3790.

  • ——, D. Silberstein, and J. B. Snider, 1995: Liquid water path and plane-parallel albedo bias during ASTEX. J. Atmos. Sci.,52, 3002–3012.

  • Charlson, R. J., J. E. Lovelock, M. O. Andreae, and S. G. Warren, 1987: Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate. Nature,326, 655–661.

  • Chuang, P. Y., R. J. Charlson, and J. H. Seinfeld, 1997: Kinetic limitations on droplet formation in clouds. Nature,390, 594–596.

  • Coakley, J. A., Jr., and P. Chýlek, 1975: The two-stream approximation in radiative transfer: Including the angle of the incident radiation. J. Atmos. Sci.,32, 409–418.

  • Davis, A., A. Marshak, J. W. Wiscombe, and R. Cahalan, 1996: Scale invariance of liquid water distributions in marine stratocumulus. Part I: Spectral properties and stationarity issues. J. Atmos. Sci.,53, 1538–1558.

  • Del Genio, A. D., M. S. Yao, W. Kovari, and K. K. W. Lo, 1996: A prognostic cloud water parameterization for global climate models. J. Climate,9, 270–304.

  • Descloitres, I., F. Parol, and J. C. Buriez, 1995: On the validity of the plane-parallel approximation for cloud reflectances as measured from POLDER during ASTEX. Ann. Geophys.,13, 108–110.

  • Duda, D. P., G. L. Stephens, B. Stevens, and W. R. Cotton, 1996: Effects of aerosols and horizontal inhomogeneity on the broadband albedo of marine stratus: Numerical simulations. J. Atmos. Sci.,53, 3757–3769.

  • Fischer, J., and H. Grassl, 1991: Detection of cloud-top height from backscattered radiances within the oxygen A band. Part I: Theoretical study. J. Appl. Meteor.,30, 1245–1259.

  • Fouquart, Y., and B. Bonnel, 1980: Computations of solar heating of the Earth’s atmosphere: A new parameterization. Beitr. Phys. Atmos.,53, 35–62.

  • ——, J. C. Buriez, M. Herman, and R. S. Kandel, 1990: The influence of clouds on radiation: A climate-modeling perspective. Rev. Geophys.,28, 145–166.

  • Gultepe, I., G. A. Isaac, W. R. Leaitch, and C. M. Banic, 1996: Parameterizations of marine stratus microphysics based on in situ observations: Implications for GCMs. J. Climate,9, 345–357.

  • Han, Q., W. B. Rossow, and A. A. Lacis, 1994: Near-global survey of effective droplet radii in liquid water clouds using ISCCP data. J. Climate,7, 465–497.

  • Hansen, J. E., and L. D. Travis, 1974: Light scattering in planetary atmospheres. Space Sci. Rev.,16, 527–610.

  • Jones, A., D. L. Roberts, and A. Slingo, 1994: A climate model study of indirect radiative forcing by anthropogenic sulphate aerosols. Nature,370, 450–453.

  • King, M. D., L. F. Radke, and P. V. Hobbs, 1990: Determination of the spectral absorption of solar radiation by marine stratocumulus clouds from airborne measurements within clouds. J. Atmos. Sci.,47, 894–907.

  • ——, ——, and ——, 1993: Optical properties of marine stratocumulus clouds modified by ships. J. Geophys. Res.,98, 2729–2739.

  • Langner, J., and H. Rodhe, 1991: A global three-dimensional model of the tropospheric sulfur cycle. J. Atmos. Chem.,13, 225–263.

  • Le Treut, H., and Z. X. Li, 1991: Sensitivity of an atmospheric general circulation model to prescribed SST changes: Feedback effects associated with the simulation of cloud optical properties. Climate Dyn.,5, 175–187.

  • Li, J., J. W. Geldart, and P. Chýlek, 1994: Solar radiative transfer in clouds with vertical internal inhomogeneity. J. Atmos. Sci.,51, 2542–2552.

  • McFarlane, N. A., G. J. Boer, J.-P. Blanchet, and M. Lazare, 1992: The Canadian Climate Centre second-generation general circulation model and its equilibrium climate. J. Climate,5, 1013–1044.

  • Martin, G. M., D. W. Johnson, and A. Spice, 1994: The measurement and parameterization of effective radius of droplets in warm stratocumulus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci.,51, 1823–1842.

  • ——, ——, P. R. Jonas, D. P. Rogers, I. M. Brooks, and R. W. Barlow, 1997: Effects of airmass type on the interaction between warm stratocumulus and underlying cumulus clouds in the marine boundary layer. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,123, 849–882.

  • Nakajima, T., and M. D. King, 1990: Determination of the optical thickness and effective particle radius of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements. Part I: Theory. J. Atmos. Sci.,47, 1878–1893.

  • ——, ——, J. D. Spinhirne, and L. F. Radke, 1991: Determination of the optical thickness and effective particle radius of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements. Part II: Marine stratocumulus observations. J. Atmos. Sci.,48, 728–750.

  • Nicholls, S., 1984: The dynamics of stratocumulus: Aircraft observations and comparisons with a mixed layer model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,110, 783–820.

  • Parol, F., J. Descloitres, and Y. Fouquart, 2000: Cloud optical thickness and albedo retrievals from bidirectional reflectance measurements of POLDER instruments during ACE-2. Tellus, in press.

  • Pawlowska, H., and J. L. Brenguier, 1996: A study of the microphysical structure of stratocumulus clouds. Proc. 12th Int. Conf. on Clouds and Precipitation, Zurich, Switzerland, International Commission on Clouds and Precipitation (ICCP) and International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Science (IAMAS), 23–26.

  • ——, and ——, 2000: Microphysical properties of stratocumulus clouds during ACE2. Tellus, in press.

  • Pelon, J., P. H. Flamant, C. Flamant, R. Valentin, G. Megie, and M. Meissonnier, 1992: The airborne lidar LEANDRE 1. Proc. Specialty Meeting on Airborne Geoscience, Toulouse, France, Météo-France, INSU, and CNES, 143–146.

  • ——, C. Flamant, V. Trouillet, and P. H. Flamant, 2000: Optical and microphysical parameters of dense stratocumulus clouds during mission 206 of EUCREX’94 as retrieved from LEANDRE 1 measurements. Atmos. Res., in press.

  • Pincus, R., and M. B. Baker, 1994: Effect of precipitation on the albedo susceptibility of clouds in the marine boundary layer. Nature,372, 250–252.

  • Plass, G. N., G. W. Kattawar, and F. E. Catchings, 1973: Matrix operator theory of radiative transfer. 1: Rayleigh scattering. Appl. Opt.,12, 314–329.

  • Platnick, S., and S. Twomey, 1994: Determining the susceptibility of cloud albedo to changes in droplet concentration with the advanced very high resolution radiometer. J. Appl. Meteor.,33, 334–347.

  • ——, and F. P. J. Valero, 1995: A validation of satellite cloud retrieval during ASTEX. J. Atmos. Sci.,52, 2985–3001.

  • Pontikis, C. A., 1996: Parameterization of the droplet effective radius of warm layer clouds. Geophys. Res. Lett.,23, 2629–2632.

  • ——, and E. Hicks, 1992: Contribution to the cloud droplet effective radius parameterization. Geophys. Res. Lett.,19, 2227–2230.

  • Raes, F., and T. Bates, 1995: ACE-2 science and implementation plan. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities Rep. CL-NA-16229-EN-C.

  • Raga, G. B., and P. R. Jonas, 1993a: Microphysical and radiative properties of small cumulus clouds over the sea. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,119, 1399–1417.

  • ——, and ——, 1993b: On the link between cloud-top radiative properties and sub-cloud aerosol concentrations. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,119, 1419–1425.

  • Randall, D. A., J. A. Coakley Jr., C. W. Fairall, R. A. Kropfli, and D. H. Lenschow, 1984: Outlook for research on subtropical marine stratiform clouds. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,65, 1290–1301.

  • Rawlins, F., and J. S. Foot, 1990: Remotely sensed measurements of stratocumulus properties during FIRE using the C130 aircraft Multi-Channel Radiometer. J. Atmos. Sci.,47, 2488–2503.

  • Rosenfeld, D., and I. M. Lensky, 1998: Satellite-based insights into precipitation formation processes in continental and maritime convective clouds. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,79, 2457–2476.

  • Schüller, L., J. Fischer, W. Armbruster, and B. Bartsch, 1997: Calibration of high resolution remote sensing instruments in the visible and near infrared. Adv. Space. Res.,19, 1325–1334.

  • ——, W. Armbruster, and J. Fischer, 2000: Retrieval of cloud optical and microphysical properties from multi-spectral radiances. Atmos. Res., in press.

  • Slingo, A., 1989: A GCM parameterization for the shortwave radiative properties of water clouds. J. Atmos. Sci,46, 1419–1427.

  • ——, 1990: Sensitivity of the Earth’s radiation budget to changes in low clouds. Nature,343, 49–51.

  • ——, and H. M. Schrecker, 1982: On the shortwave radiative properties of stratiform water clouds. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,108, 407–426.

  • ——, S. Nicholls, and J. Schmetz, 1982: Aircraft observations of marine stratocumulus during JASIN. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,108, 833–856.

  • Stephens, G. L., 1978: Radiation profiles in extended water clouds. II: Parameterization schemes. J. Atmos. Sci.,35, 2123–2132.

  • ——, and C. M. R. Platt, 1987: Aircraft observations of the radiative and microphysical properties of stratocumulus and cumulus cloud fields. J. Climate Appl. Meteor.,26, 1243–1269.

  • ——, and S. Tsay, 1990: On the cloud absorption anomaly. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,116, 671–704.

  • Taylor, J. P., and A. McHaffie, 1994: Measurements of cloud susceptibility. J. Atmos. Sci.,51, 1298–1306.

  • Twomey, S., 1977: The influence of pollution on the shortwave albedo of clouds. J. Atmos. Sci.,34, 1149–1152.

  • ——, 1991: Aerosols, clouds and radiation. Atmos. Environ.,254, 2435–2442.

  • ——, and T. Cocks, 1989: Remote sensing of cloud parameters from spectral reflectance measurements in the near-infrared. Beitr. Phys. Atmos.,62, 172–179.

  • ——, H. Jacobowitz, and H. B. Howell, 1966: Matrix methods for multiple scattering problems. J. Atmos. Sci.,23, 101–108.

  • van de Hulst, H. C., 1957: Light Scattering by Small Particles. John Wiley and Sons, 470 pp.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 741 315 27
PDF Downloads 590 288 21

Radiative Properties of Boundary Layer Clouds: Droplet Effective Radius versus Number Concentration

Jean-Louis BrenguierMétéo-France, CNRM-GAME, GMEI, Toulouse, France

Search for other papers by Jean-Louis Brenguier in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Hanna PawlowskaMétéo-France, CNRM-GAME, GMEI, Toulouse, France

Search for other papers by Hanna Pawlowska in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Lothar SchüllerInstitut für Weltraumwissenschaften, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany

Search for other papers by Lothar Schüller in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Rene PreuskerInstitut für Weltraumwissenschaften, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany

Search for other papers by Rene Preusker in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Jürgen FischerInstitut für Weltraumwissenschaften, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany

Search for other papers by Jürgen Fischer in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Yves FouquartLaboratoire d’Optique Atmosphérique, Université des Sciences et Techniques de Lille, Lille, France

Search for other papers by Yves Fouquart in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

The plane-parallel model for the parameterization of clouds in global climate models is examined in order to estimate the effects of the vertical profile of the microphysical parameters on radiative transfer calculations for extended boundary layer clouds. The vertically uniform model is thus compared to the adiabatic stratified one. The validation of the adiabatic model is based on simultaneous measurements of cloud microphysical parameters in situ and cloud radiative properties from above the cloud layer with a multispectral radiometer. In particular, the observations demonstrate that the dependency of cloud optical thickness on cloud geometrical thickness is larger than predicted with the vertically uniform model and that it is in agreement with the prediction of the adiabatic one. Numerical simulations of the radiative transfer have been performed to establish the equivalence between the two models in terms of the effective radius. They show that the equivalent effective radius of a vertically uniform model is between 80% and 100% of the effective radius at the top of an adiabatic stratified model. The relationship depends, in fact, upon the cloud geometrical thickness and droplet concentration. Remote sensing measurements of cloud radiances in the visible and near infrared are then examined at the scale of a cloud system for a marine case and the most polluted case sampled during the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment. The distributions of the measured values are significantly different between the two cases. This constitutes observational evidence of the aerosol indirect effect at the scale of a cloud system. Finally, the adiabatic stratified model is used to develop a procedure for the retrieval of cloud geometrical thickness and cloud droplet number concentration from the measurements of cloud radiances. It is applied to the marine and to the polluted cases. The retrieved values of droplet concentration are significantly underestimated with respect to the values measured in situ. Despite this discrepancy the procedure is efficient at distinguishing the difference between the two cases.

* Additional affiliation: Institute of Geophysics, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Corresponding author address: Dr. J. L. Brenguier, Météo-France, Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques, GMEI/MNP, 42 av. Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse Cedex 01, France.

Email: jlb@meteo.fr

Abstract

The plane-parallel model for the parameterization of clouds in global climate models is examined in order to estimate the effects of the vertical profile of the microphysical parameters on radiative transfer calculations for extended boundary layer clouds. The vertically uniform model is thus compared to the adiabatic stratified one. The validation of the adiabatic model is based on simultaneous measurements of cloud microphysical parameters in situ and cloud radiative properties from above the cloud layer with a multispectral radiometer. In particular, the observations demonstrate that the dependency of cloud optical thickness on cloud geometrical thickness is larger than predicted with the vertically uniform model and that it is in agreement with the prediction of the adiabatic one. Numerical simulations of the radiative transfer have been performed to establish the equivalence between the two models in terms of the effective radius. They show that the equivalent effective radius of a vertically uniform model is between 80% and 100% of the effective radius at the top of an adiabatic stratified model. The relationship depends, in fact, upon the cloud geometrical thickness and droplet concentration. Remote sensing measurements of cloud radiances in the visible and near infrared are then examined at the scale of a cloud system for a marine case and the most polluted case sampled during the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment. The distributions of the measured values are significantly different between the two cases. This constitutes observational evidence of the aerosol indirect effect at the scale of a cloud system. Finally, the adiabatic stratified model is used to develop a procedure for the retrieval of cloud geometrical thickness and cloud droplet number concentration from the measurements of cloud radiances. It is applied to the marine and to the polluted cases. The retrieved values of droplet concentration are significantly underestimated with respect to the values measured in situ. Despite this discrepancy the procedure is efficient at distinguishing the difference between the two cases.

* Additional affiliation: Institute of Geophysics, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Corresponding author address: Dr. J. L. Brenguier, Météo-France, Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques, GMEI/MNP, 42 av. Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse Cedex 01, France.

Email: jlb@meteo.fr

Save