• Andrews, D. G., J. R. Holton, and C. B. Leovy, 1987: Middle Atmosphere Dynamics. Academic Press, 489 pp.

  • Baldwin, M. P., and T. J. Dunkerton, 1999: Propagation of the Arctic Oscillation from the stratosphere to the troposphere. J. Geophys. Res., 104 , 3093730946.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baldwin, M. P., and T. J. Dunkerton, 2001: Stratospheric harbingers of anomalous weather regimes. Science, 294 , 581584.

  • Boville, B. A., 1984: The influence of the polar night jet on the tropospheric circulation in a GCM. J. Atmos. Sci., 41 , 11321142.

  • Christiansen, B., 2000: A model study of the dynamical connection between the Arctic Oscillation and stratospheric vacillations. J. Geophys. Res., 105 , 2946129474.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fyfe, J. C., G. J. Boer, and G. M. Flato, 1999: The Arctic and Antarctic Oscillations and their projected changes under global warming. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26 , 16011604.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hartmann, D. L., J. M. Wallace, V. Limpasuvan, D. W. J. Thompson, and J. R. Holton, 2000: Can ozone depletion and global warming interact to produce rapid climate change? Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 97 , 14121417.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haynes, P. H., C. J. Marks, M. E. McIntyre, T. G. Shepherd, and K. P. Shine, 1991: On the “downward control” of extratropical diabatic circulation by eddy-induced mean zonal forces. J. Atmos. Sci., 48 , 651678.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holton, J. R., and C. Mass, 1976: Stratospheric vacillation cycles. J. Atmos. Sci., 33 , 22182225.

  • Holton, J. R., P. H. Haynes, M. E. McIntyre, A. R. Douglass, R. B. Rood, and L. Pfister, 1995: Stratosphere–troposphere exchange. Rev. Geophys., 33 , 403439.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kuroda, Y., and K. Kodera, 1999: Role of planetary waves in the stratosphere–troposphere coupled variability in the Northern Hemisphere winter. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26 , 23752378.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Limpasuvan, V., and D. L. Hartmann, 2000: Wave-maintained annular modes of climate variability. J. Climate, 13 , 44144429.

  • Matsuno, T., 1971: A dynamical model of the stratospheric sudden warming. J. Atmos. Sci., 28 , 14791494.

  • Polvani, L. M., and P. J. Kushner, 2002: Tropospheric response to stratospheric perturbations in a relatively simple general circulation model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 .1114, doi:10.1029/2001GL014284.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SGKS Group, cited, 1999: DCL-5.1 (in Japanese). GFD-DENNOU Club. [Available online at http://www.gfd-dennou.org/library/dcl/.].

  • Shindell, D. T., R. L. Miller, G. A. Schmidt, and L. Pandolfo, 1999: Simulation of recent northern winter climate trends by greenhouse-gas forcing. Nature, 399 , 452455.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shindell, D. T., G. A. Schmidt, R. L. Miller, and D. Rind, 2001: Northern Hemisphere climate response to greenhouse gas, ozone, solar and volcanic forcing. J. Geophys. Res., 106 , 71937210.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shiotani, M., and I. Hirota, 1985: Planetary wave–mean flow interaction in the stratosphere: A comparison between Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 111 , 309334.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Swamp Project, cited, 1998: AGCM5 (in Japanese). GFD-DENNOU Club. [Available online at http://www.gfd-dennou.org/arch/agcm5/.].

  • Taguchi, M., and S. Yoden, 2002: A parameter–sweep experiment on the annular variability with a simple global circulation model. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 80 , 10771088.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taguchi, M., T. Yamaga, and S. Yoden, 2001: Internal variability of the troposphere–stratosphere coupled system simulated in a simple global circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 58 , 31843203.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, D. W. J., and J. M. Wallace, 1998: The Arctic oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25 , 12971300.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, D. W. J., and J. M. Wallace, 2000: Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part I: Month-to-month variability. J. Climate, 13 , 10001016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, D. W. J., J. M. Wallace, and G. C. Hegerl, 2000: Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part II: Trends. J. Climate, 13 , 10181036.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, D. W. J., M. P. Baldwin, and J. M. Wallace, 2002: Stratospheric connection to Northern Hemisphere wintertime weather: Implications for prediction. J. Climate, 15 , 14211428.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 2 2 2
PDF Downloads 0 0 0

Tropospheric Response to Stratospheric Degradation in a Simple Global Circulation Model

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
Restricted access

Abstract

The dynamical effect of the stratosphere on the troposphere is investigated in a series of numerical experiments with a simple global circulation model under a perpetual winter condition. One control simulation (CS) and four degraded stratosphere simulations (DS) are performed for three values of topographic amplitude h0 of 0, 500, and 1000 m to examine the role of forced planetary waves. In DS, the thermal relaxation rate is increased only in the stratosphere to give poor simulations there. A comparison of the tropospheric circulation between CS and DS reveals the stratospheric effect on the troposphere, or tropospheric response to the stratospheric degradation.

The numerical experiments demonstrate that the tropospheric response to the stratospheric degradation depends on h0. The response is weak for h0 = 0 and 500 m but remarkably strong for h0 = 1000 m. The response is projected onto the dominant mode of variability, or annular variability, which is the model counterpart of the Arctic Oscillation, in different ways depending on h0. The response is essentially projected onto the annular variability for h0 = 0 and 1000 m. The climatological states shift toward negative (positive) polarity of the mode for h0 = 0 m (1000 m), characterized by positive (negative) anomalies of geopotential height in high latitudes. The response is almost independent of the annual variability for h0 = 500 m. A diagnosis based on the transformed Eulerian mean equations shows that the change of the wave driving in the stratosphere can explain the tropospheric response in part, suggesting that the downward control is a mechanism at play.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Masakazu Taguchi, Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Box 351640, Seattle, WA 98195-1640. Email: taguchi@atmos.washington.edu

Abstract

The dynamical effect of the stratosphere on the troposphere is investigated in a series of numerical experiments with a simple global circulation model under a perpetual winter condition. One control simulation (CS) and four degraded stratosphere simulations (DS) are performed for three values of topographic amplitude h0 of 0, 500, and 1000 m to examine the role of forced planetary waves. In DS, the thermal relaxation rate is increased only in the stratosphere to give poor simulations there. A comparison of the tropospheric circulation between CS and DS reveals the stratospheric effect on the troposphere, or tropospheric response to the stratospheric degradation.

The numerical experiments demonstrate that the tropospheric response to the stratospheric degradation depends on h0. The response is weak for h0 = 0 and 500 m but remarkably strong for h0 = 1000 m. The response is projected onto the dominant mode of variability, or annular variability, which is the model counterpart of the Arctic Oscillation, in different ways depending on h0. The response is essentially projected onto the annular variability for h0 = 0 and 1000 m. The climatological states shift toward negative (positive) polarity of the mode for h0 = 0 m (1000 m), characterized by positive (negative) anomalies of geopotential height in high latitudes. The response is almost independent of the annual variability for h0 = 500 m. A diagnosis based on the transformed Eulerian mean equations shows that the change of the wave driving in the stratosphere can explain the tropospheric response in part, suggesting that the downward control is a mechanism at play.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Masakazu Taguchi, Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Box 351640, Seattle, WA 98195-1640. Email: taguchi@atmos.washington.edu

Save