• Balsley, B. B., D. C. Fritts, R. G. Frehlich, M. Jones, S. L. Vadas, and R. Coulter, 2002: Up-gully flow in the Great Plains region: A mechanism for perturbing the nighttime lower atmosphere? Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 .1931, doi:10.1029/2002GL015435.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Balsley, B. B., R. G. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Meillier, and A. Muschinski, 2003: Extreme gradients in the nocturnal boundary layer: Structure, evolution, and potential causes. J. Atmos Sci., 60 , 24872495.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blumen, W., R. Banta, S. P. Burns, D. C. Fritts, R. Newsom, G. S. Poulos, and J. Sun, 2001: Turbulence statistics of a Kelvin–Helmholtz billow event observed in the nighttime boundary layer during the Cooperative Atmosphere–Surface Exchange Study field program. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 34 , 189204.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chimonas, G., and C. O. Hines, 1986: Doppler ducting of atmospheric gravity waves. J. Geophys. Res., 91 , 12191230.

  • Chimonas, G., and C. J. Nappo, 1987: A thunderstorm bow wave. J. Atmos. Sci., 44 , 533541.

  • Coulter, R. L., and J. C. Doran, 2002: Spatial and temporal occurrence of intermittent turbulence during CASES-99. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 105 , 329349.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eckart, C., 1961: Internal waves in the ocean. Phys. Fluids, 4 , 791799.

  • Eichinger, W. E., D. I. Cooper, P. R. Forman, J. Griegos, M. A. Osborn, D. Richter, L. L. Tellier, and R. Thornton, 1999: The development of a scanning Raman water vapor lidar for boundary layer and tropospheric observations. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 16 , 17531766.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Einaudi, F., 1989: A climatology of gravity waves and other coherent disturbances at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory during March–April 1984. J. Atmos. Sci., 46 , 303329.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Finnigan, J. J., and F. Einaudi, 1981: The interaction between an internal gravity wave and the planetary boundary layer. Part II: Effect of the wave on the turbulent structure. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 107 , 807832.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Finnigan, J. J., F. Einaudi, and D. Fua, 1984: The interaction between an internal gravity wave and turbulence in the stably-stratified nocturnal boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 41 , 24092436.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fritts, D. C., and L. Yuan, 1989: An analysis of gravity wave ducting in the atmosphere: Eckart's resonances in thermal and Doppler ducts. J. Geophys. Res., 94 , 1845518466.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gill, A. E., 1982: Atmosphere–Ocean Dynamics. Academic Press, 662 pp.

  • Gossard, E. E., and W. H. Hooke, 1975: Waves in the Atmosphere. Elsevier, 456 pp.

  • Jones, W. L., 1970: A theory for quasi-periodic oscillations observed in the ionosphere. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 32 , 15551566.

  • Katz, E. J., and M. G. Briscoe, 1979: Vertical coherence of the internal wave field from towed sensors. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 9 , 518530.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, A. K., and D. J. Benney, 1981: The evolution of nonlinear wave trains in stratified shear flows. Stud. Appl. Math., 64 , 247269.

  • Liu, A. K., T. Kubota, and D. R. S. Ko, 1980: Resonant transfer of energy between nonlinear waves in neighboring pycnoclines. Stud. Appl. Math., 63 , 2545.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, A. K., N. R. Pereira, and D. R. S. Ko, 1982: Weakly interacting internal solitary waves in neighboring pycnoclines. J. Fluid Mech., 122 , 187194.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Monserrat, S., and A. J. Thorpe, 1996: Use of ducting theory in an observed case of gravity waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 53 , 17241736.

  • Nappo, C. J., 2002: An Introduction to Atmospheric Gravity Waves. Academic Press, 297 pp.

  • Nappo, C. J., T. L. Crawford, R. M. Eckman, and D. L. Auble, 1991: A high-precision sensitive electronic microbarograph network. Preprints, Seventh Symp. on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, New Orleans, LA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., J179–J181.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Newsom, R., and R. M. Banta, 2003: Shear-flow instability in the stable nocturnal boundary layer as observed by Doppler lidar during CASES-99. J. Atmos. Sci., 60 , 1633.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peters, H., 1983: The kinematics of a stochastic field of internal waves modified by a mean shear current. Deep-Sea Res., 30 , 119148.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Poulos, G. S., and Coauthors. 2002: CASES-99: A comprehensive investigation of the stable nocturnal boundary layer. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83 , 555581.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rees, J. M., J. C. W. Denholm-Price, J. C. King, and P. S. Anderson, 2000: A climatological study of internal gravity waves in the boundary layer overlying the Brunt Ice Shelf, Antarctica. J. Atmos. Sci., 57 , 511526.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Soler, M. R., C. Infante, P. Buenestado, and L. Mahrt, 2002: Observations of nocturnal drainage flow in a shallow gully. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 105 , 253273.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stobie, J. G., F. Einaudi, and L. W. Uccellini, 1983: A case study of gravity waves–convective storms interactions: 9 May 1997. J. Atmos. Sci., 40 , 28042830.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stockwell, R. G., and R. P. Lowe, 2001: Airglow imaging of gravity waves. 1. Results from a small network of OH nightglow scanning imagers. J. Geophys. Res., 106 , 1718517203.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sun, J., and Coauthors. 2002: Intermittent turbulence associated with a density current passage in the stable boundary layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 105 , 199219.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Werne, J. A., and D. C. Fritts, 1999: Stratified shear turbulence: Evolution and statistics. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26 , 439442.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 191 29 1
PDF Downloads 50 16 0

Analysis of Ducted Motions in the Stable Nocturnal Boundary Layer during CASES-99

David C. FrittsColorado Research Associates, Northwest Research Associates, Boulder, Colorado

Search for other papers by David C. Fritts in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Carmen NappoOak Ridge National Laboratory, NOAA, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Search for other papers by Carmen Nappo in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Dennis M. RigginColorado Research Associates, Northwest Research Associates, Boulder, Colorado

Search for other papers by Dennis M. Riggin in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Ben B. BalsleyCooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado

Search for other papers by Ben B. Balsley in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
William E. EichingerDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa

Search for other papers by William E. Eichinger in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Rob K. NewsomEnvironmental Technology Laboratory, NOAA, Boulder, Colorado

Search for other papers by Rob K. Newsom in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

Data obtained with multiple instruments at the main site of the 1999 Cooperative Atmosphere–Surface Exchange Study (CASES-99) are employed to examine the character and variability of wave motions occurring in the stable nocturnal boundary layer during the night of 14 October 1999. The predominant motions are surprisingly similar in character throughout the night, exhibiting largely westward propagation, horizontal wavelengths of ∼1 to 10 km, phase speeds slightly greater than the mean wind in the direction of propagation, and highly coherent vertical motions with no apparent phase progression with altitude. Additionally, vertical and horizontal velocities are in approximate quadrature and the largest amplitudes occur at elevated altitudes of maximum stratification. These motions are interpreted as ducted gravity waves that propagate along maxima of stratification and mean wind and that are evanescent above, and occasionally below, the altitudes at which they are ducted. Modal structures for ducted waves are computed for mean wind and stratification profiles for three specific cases and are seen to provide a plausible explanation of the observed motions.

Corresponding author address: Dr. David C. Fritts, Colorado Research Associates/NWRA, 3380 Mitchell Lane, Boulder, CO 80301. Email: dave@colorado-research.com

Abstract

Data obtained with multiple instruments at the main site of the 1999 Cooperative Atmosphere–Surface Exchange Study (CASES-99) are employed to examine the character and variability of wave motions occurring in the stable nocturnal boundary layer during the night of 14 October 1999. The predominant motions are surprisingly similar in character throughout the night, exhibiting largely westward propagation, horizontal wavelengths of ∼1 to 10 km, phase speeds slightly greater than the mean wind in the direction of propagation, and highly coherent vertical motions with no apparent phase progression with altitude. Additionally, vertical and horizontal velocities are in approximate quadrature and the largest amplitudes occur at elevated altitudes of maximum stratification. These motions are interpreted as ducted gravity waves that propagate along maxima of stratification and mean wind and that are evanescent above, and occasionally below, the altitudes at which they are ducted. Modal structures for ducted waves are computed for mean wind and stratification profiles for three specific cases and are seen to provide a plausible explanation of the observed motions.

Corresponding author address: Dr. David C. Fritts, Colorado Research Associates/NWRA, 3380 Mitchell Lane, Boulder, CO 80301. Email: dave@colorado-research.com

Save