• Alisse, J., and C. Sidi, 2000: Experimental probability density functions of small-scale fluctuations in the stably stratified atmosphere. J. Fluid Mech., 402 , 137162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Azizyan, G. V., B. M. Koprov, and V. V. Kalugin, 1989: Spectra of turbulent velocity fluctuations in the viscous range. Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 25 , 935938.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Balsley, B. B., M. L. Jensen, and R. G. Frehlich, 1998: The use of state-of-the-art kites for profiling the lower atmosphere. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 87 , 125.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Balsley, B. B., R. G. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, Y. Meillier, and A. Muschinski, 2003: Extreme gradients in the nocturnal boundary layer: Structure, evolution, and potential causes. J. Atmos. Sci., 60 , 24962508.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bruun, H. H., 1995: Hot-Wire Anemometry. Oxford University Press, 532 pp.

  • Cohn, S. A., 1995: Radar measurements of turbulent eddy dissipation rate in the troposphere: A comparison of techniques. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 12 , 8595.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cuijpers, J. W. M., and W. Kohsiek, 1989: Vertical profiles of the structure parameter of temperature in the stable, nocturnal boundary layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 47 , 111129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Danaila, L., F. Anselmet, and R. A. Antonia, 2002: An overview of the effect of large-scale inhomogeneities on small-scale turbulence. Phys. Fluids, 14 , 24752484.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eaton, F. D., S. A. McLaughlin, and J. R. Hines, 1995: A new frequency-modulated continuous wave radar for studying planetary boundary layer morphology. Radio Sci., 30 , 7588.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frehlich, R., 1992: Laser scintillation measurements of the temperature spectrum in the atmospheric surface layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 49 , 14941509.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frehlich, R., S. M. Hannon, and S. W. Henderson, 1998: Coherent Doppler lidar measurements of wind field statistics. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 86 , 233256.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Garratt, J. R., 1981: Observations in the nocturnal boundary layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 22 , 2148.

  • Gossard, E. E., W. D. Neff, R. J. Zamora, and J. E. Gaynor, 1984: The fine structure of elevated refractive layers: Implications for over-the-horizon propagation and radar sounding systems. Radio Sci., 19 , 15231533.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hill, R. J., 1978: Models of the scalar spectrum for turbulent advection. J. Fluid Mech., 88 , 541562.

  • Hill, R. J., 1996: Corrections to Taylor's frozen turbulence approximation. Atmos. Res., 40 , 153175.

  • Hugo, R. J., S. R. Nowlin, F. D. Eaton, K. P. Bishop, and K. A. McCrae, 1999: Hot-wire calibration in a non-isothermal incompressible pressure variant flow. Proc. SPIE, 3706 , 1122.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jacoby-Koaly, S., B. Campistron, S. Bernard, B. Bénech, F. Ardhuin-Girard, J. Dessens, E. Dupont, and B. Carissimo, 2002: Turbulent dissipation rate in the boundary layer via UHF wind profiler Doppler spectral width measurements. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 103 , 361389.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kolmogorov, A. N., 1962: A refinement of previous hypotheses concerning the local structure turbulence in a viscous incompressible fluid at high Reynolds number. J. Fluid. Mech., 13 , 8285.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mahrt, L., 1985: Vertical structure and turbulence in the very stable boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 42 , 23332349.

  • Mahrt, L., 1989: Intermittency of atmospheric turbulence. J. Atmos. Sci., 46 , 7995.

  • Mahrt, L., and N. Gamage, 1987: Observations of turbulence in stratified flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 44 , 11061121.

  • Miller, D. O., C. Tong, and J. C. Wyngaard, 1999: The effects of probe-induced flow distortions on velocity covariances: Field observations. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 91 , 483493.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Monin, A. S., and A. M. Yaglom, 1975: Statistical Fluid Mechanics: Mechanics of Turbulence. Vol. 2. MIT Press, 874 pp.

  • Muschinski, A., and C. Wode, 1998: First in situ evidence for coexisting submeter temperature and humidity sheets in the lower free troposphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 55 , 28932906.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Muschinski, A., and D. H. Lenschow, 2001: Future directions for research on meter- and submeter-scale atmospheric turbulence. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82 , 28312843.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Muschinski, A., R. Frehlich, M. L. Jensen, R. Hugo, A. Hoff, F. Eaton, and B. Balsley, 2001: Fine-scale measurements of turbulence in the lower troposphere: An intercomparison between a kite- and balloon-borne, and a helicopter-borne measurement system. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 98 , 219250.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nieuwstadt, F. T. M., 1984a: The turbulent structure of the stable, nocturnal boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 41 , 22022216.

  • Nieuwstadt, F. T. M., 1984b: Some aspects of the turbulent stable boundary layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 30 , 3155.

  • NOAA, 1976: U.S. Standard Atmosphere 1976. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NOAA-S/T 76-1562, 227 pp. [Available from the National Technical Information Office, Springfield, VA 22161 (Product number: ADA-035-6000).].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Poulos, G. S., and Coauthors. 2002: CASES-99: A comprehensive investigation of the stable nocturnal boundary layer. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83 , 555581.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Richter, J. H., 1969: High resolution tropospheric radar sounding. Radio Sci., 4 , 12611268.

  • Ruddick, B., A. Anis, and K. Thompson, 2000: Maximum likelihood spectral fitting: The Batchelor spectrum. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 17 , 15411555.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Skelly, B. T., D. R. Miller, and T. H. Meyer, 2002: Triple-hot-film anemometer performance in CASES-99 and a comparison with sonic anemometer measurements. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 105 , 275304.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smalikho, I. N., 1997: Accuracy of the turbulent energy dissipation rate estimation from the temporal spectrum of wind fluctuations. Atmos. Oceanic Opt., 10 , 559563.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smedman, A-S., 1988: Observation of a multi-level turbulence structure in a very stable atmospheric boundary layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 44 , 231253.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smedman, A-S., H. Bergstrom, and U. Hogstrom, 1995: Spectral variances and length scales in a marine stable boundary layer dominated by a low level jet. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 76 , 211232.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smyth, W. D., and J. N. Moum, 2000: Anisotropy of turbulence in stably stratified mixing layers. Phys. Fluids, 12 , 13431362.

  • Sreenivasan, K. R., and G. Stolovitzky, 1996: Statistical dependence of inertial range properties on large scales in a high-Reynolds-number shear flow. Phys. Rev. Lett., 77 , 22182221.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tatarskii, V. I., 1961: Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium. McGraw-Hill, 285 pp.

  • Wyngaard, J. C., and B. Kosovic, 1994: Similarity of structure-function parameters in the stably stratified boundary layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 71 , 277287.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 242 35 11
PDF Downloads 142 30 9

Turbulence Measurements with the CIRES Tethered Lifting System during CASES-99: Calibration and Spectral Analysis of Temperature and Velocity

Rod FrehlichCooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado

Search for other papers by Rod Frehlich in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Yannick MeillierCooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado

Search for other papers by Yannick Meillier in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Michael L. JensenCooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado

Search for other papers by Michael L. Jensen in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Ben BalsleyCooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado

Search for other papers by Ben Balsley in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

Finescale temperature and velocity measurements with multiple vertically spaced cold-wire and hot-wire sensors on the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences (CIRES) tethered lifting system (TLS) were produced during the Cooperative Atmosphere–Surface Exchange Study-1999 (CASES-99). The various calibration methods are presented as well as algorithms to extract high-resolution estimates of the energy dissipation rate ϵ and the temperature structure constant C2T. The instrumentation is capable of measurements of ϵ ≈ 10−7 m2 s−3 and C2T ≈ 10−6 K2 m−2/3.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Rod Frehlich, CIRES, University of Colorado, Campus Box 216, Boulder, CO 80309-0216. Email: rgf@cires.colorado.edu

Abstract

Finescale temperature and velocity measurements with multiple vertically spaced cold-wire and hot-wire sensors on the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences (CIRES) tethered lifting system (TLS) were produced during the Cooperative Atmosphere–Surface Exchange Study-1999 (CASES-99). The various calibration methods are presented as well as algorithms to extract high-resolution estimates of the energy dissipation rate ϵ and the temperature structure constant C2T. The instrumentation is capable of measurements of ϵ ≈ 10−7 m2 s−3 and C2T ≈ 10−6 K2 m−2/3.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Rod Frehlich, CIRES, University of Colorado, Campus Box 216, Boulder, CO 80309-0216. Email: rgf@cires.colorado.edu

Save