• Atzema, A. J., 1992: A model for the drying of grass with realtime weather data. J. Agric. Eng. Res., 53 , 231247.

  • Blackadar, A. K., 1979: High-resolution models of planetary boundary layer. Advances in Environmental Science and Engineering, J. R. Pfafflin and E. N. Ziegler, Eds., Gordon and Breach, 50–85.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Businger, J. A., 1973: Turbulent transfer in the atmospheric surface layer. Workshop on Micrometeorology, D. A. Haugen, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 67–100.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coulter, R. L., 1990: A case study of turbulence in the stable nocturnal boundary layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 52 , 7591.

  • De Bruin, H. A. R., 1994: Analytic solutions of the equations governing the temperature fluctuation method. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 68 , 427432.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Derbyshire, S. H., 1999: Boundary-layer decoupling over cold surfaces as a physical boundary instability. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 90 , 297325.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Duynkerke, P. G., 1999: Turbulence, radiation and fog in Dutch stable boundary layers. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 90 , 447477.

  • Ha, K-J., and L. Mahrt, 2001: Simple inclusion of z-less turbulence within and above the modeled nocturnal boundary layer. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129 , 21362143.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hartogensis, O. K., H. A. R. De Bruin, and B. J. H. van de Wiel, 2002: Displaced-beam small aperture scintillometer test. Part II: CASES-99 stable boundary layer experiment. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 105 , 149176.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holtslag, A. A. M., and F. T. M. Nieuwstadt, 1986: Scaling the atmospheric boundary layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 36 , 201209.

  • Holtslag, A. A. M., and H. A. R. De Bruin, 1988: Applied modelling of the nighttime surface energy balance over land. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 27 , 689704.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Howell, J. F., and J. Sun, 1999: Surface-layer fluxes in stable conditions. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 90 , 495520.

  • Kondo, J., O. Kanechika, and N. Yasuda, 1978: Heat and momentum transfers under strong stability in the atmospheric surface layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 35 , 10121021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lin, J. T., 1990: The effect of inertial and turbulence oscillations in the stable boundary layer and their role in horizontal dispersion. M.S. thesis, Dept. of Mathematics, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 82 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mahrt, L., 1999: Stratified atmospheric boundary layers. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 90 , 375396.

  • Mahrt, L., and D. Vickers, 2002: Constrasting vertical structures of nocturnal boundary layers. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 105 , 351363.

  • Mahrt, L., J. Sun, W. Blumen, T. Delany, and S. Oncley, 1998: Nocturnal boundary layer regimes. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 88 , 255278.

  • McNider, R. T., D. E. England, M. J. Friedman, and X. Shi, 1995: Predictability of the stable atmospheric boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 52 , 16021614.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Monteith, J. L., 1981: Evaporation and surface temperature. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 107 , 127.

  • Moore, C., 1986: Frequency response corrections for eddy correlation systems. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 37 , 1735.

  • Nappo, C., 1991: Sporadic breakdown of stability in the PBL over simple and complex terrain. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 54 , 6987.

  • Nieuwstadt, F. T. M., 1984: The turbulent structure of the stable, nocturnal boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 41 , 22022216.

  • Nieuwstadt, F. T. M., and H. Tennekes, 1981: A rate equation for the nocturnal boundary-layer height. J. Atmos. Sci., 38 , 14181428.

  • Oke, T. R., 1978: Boundary Layer Climates. Methuen and Co., 372 pp.

  • Poulos, G. S., and Coauthors. 2002: CASES-99: A comprehensive investigation of the stable nocturnal boundary layer. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83 , 555581.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Revelle, D. O., 1993: Chaos and “bursting” in the planetary boundary layer. J. Appl. Meteor., 32 , 11691180.

  • Turner, J. S., 1973: Bouyancy Effects in Fluids. Cambridge University Press, 368 pp.

  • Van de Wiel, B. J. H., R. J. Ronda, A. F. Moene, H. A. R. De Bruin, and A. A. M. Holtslag, 2002a: Intermittent turbulence and oscillations in the stable boundary layer over land. Part I: A bulk model. J. Atmos. Sci., 59 , 942958.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van de Wiel, B. J. H., A. F. Moene, R. J. Ronda, H. A. R. De Bruin, and A. A. M. Holtslag, 2002b: Intermittent turbulence and oscillations in the stable boundary layer over land. Part II: A system dynamics approach. J. Atmos. Sci., 59 , 25672581.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van Wijk, W. R., and D. A. de Vries, 1963: Periodic temperature variations. Physics of Plant Environment, W. R. van Wijk, Ed., Interscience, 133–138.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 446 112 11
PDF Downloads 258 88 6

Intermittent Turbulence in the Stable Boundary Layer over Land. Part III: A Classification for Observations during CASES-99

B. J. H. Van de WielDepartment of Meteorology and Air Quality, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands

Search for other papers by B. J. H. Van de Wiel in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
A. F. MoeneDepartment of Meteorology and Air Quality, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands

Search for other papers by A. F. Moene in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
O. K. HartogensisDepartment of Meteorology and Air Quality, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands

Search for other papers by O. K. Hartogensis in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
H. A. R. De BruinDepartment of Meteorology and Air Quality, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands

Search for other papers by H. A. R. De Bruin in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
A. A. M. HoltslagDepartment of Meteorology and Air Quality, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands

Search for other papers by A. A. M. Holtslag in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

In this paper a classification of stable boundary layer regimes is presented based on observations of near-surface turbulence during the Cooperative Atmosphere–Surface Exchange Study-1999 (CASES-99). It is found that the different nights can be divided into three subclasses: a turbulent regime, an intermittent regime, and a radiative regime, which confirms the findings of two companion papers that use a simplified theoretical model (it is noted that its simpliflied structure limits the model generality to near-surface flows). The papers predict the occurrence of stable boundary layer regimes in terms of external forcing parameters such as the (effective) pressure gradient and radiative forcing. The classification in the present work supports these predictions and shows that the predictions are robust in a qualitative sense. As such, it is, for example, shown that intermittent turbulence is most likely to occur in clear-sky conditions with a moderately weak effective pressure gradient. The quantitative features of the theoretical classification are, however, rather sensitive to (often uncertain) local parameter estimations, such as the bulk heat conductance of the vegetation layer. This sensitivity limits the current applicability of the theoretical classification in a strict quantitative sense, apart from its conceptual value.

Corresponding author address: Dr. B. J. H. Van de Wiel, Dept. Of Meteorology and Air Quality, Duivendaal 2, Wageningen University, Wageningen 6701 AP, Netherlands. Email: Bas.vandeWiel;cawur.nl.

Abstract

In this paper a classification of stable boundary layer regimes is presented based on observations of near-surface turbulence during the Cooperative Atmosphere–Surface Exchange Study-1999 (CASES-99). It is found that the different nights can be divided into three subclasses: a turbulent regime, an intermittent regime, and a radiative regime, which confirms the findings of two companion papers that use a simplified theoretical model (it is noted that its simpliflied structure limits the model generality to near-surface flows). The papers predict the occurrence of stable boundary layer regimes in terms of external forcing parameters such as the (effective) pressure gradient and radiative forcing. The classification in the present work supports these predictions and shows that the predictions are robust in a qualitative sense. As such, it is, for example, shown that intermittent turbulence is most likely to occur in clear-sky conditions with a moderately weak effective pressure gradient. The quantitative features of the theoretical classification are, however, rather sensitive to (often uncertain) local parameter estimations, such as the bulk heat conductance of the vegetation layer. This sensitivity limits the current applicability of the theoretical classification in a strict quantitative sense, apart from its conceptual value.

Corresponding author address: Dr. B. J. H. Van de Wiel, Dept. Of Meteorology and Air Quality, Duivendaal 2, Wageningen University, Wageningen 6701 AP, Netherlands. Email: Bas.vandeWiel;cawur.nl.

Save