• Andren, A., 1995: The structure of stably stratified atmospheric boundary layers: A large-eddy simulation study. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc, 121 , 961985.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, A. R., , S. H. Derbyshire, , and P. J. Mason, 1994: Large-eddy simulation of stable atmospheric boundary layers with a revised stochastic subgrid model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc, 120 , 14851512.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Canuto, V. M., , and F. Minotti, 1993: Stratified turbulence in the atmosphere and ocean. A new subgrid model. J. Atmos. Sci, 50 , 19251935.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Canuto, V. M., , and Y. Cheng, 1997: Determination of the Smagorinsky–Lilly constant Cs. Phys. Fluids, A9. 5) 13681378.

  • Cheng, Y., , and V. M. Canuto, 1994: Stably stratified shear turbulence. A new model for the energy dissipation length scale. J. Atmos. Sci, 51 , 23842396.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng, Y., , V. M. Canuto, , and A. M. Howard, 2002: An improved model for the turbulent PBL. J. Atmos. Sci, 59 , 15501565.

  • Deardorff, J. W., 1974: Three-dimensional numerical study of turbulence in an entraining mixed layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor, 7 , 199226.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deardorff, J. W., 1976: Clear and cloud-capped mixed layers, their numerical simulations, structure and growth and parameterization,. The Treatment of the BL in Numerical Weather Prediction, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, 234–284.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deardorff, J. W., 1980: Stratocumulus-capped mixed layers derived from a three dimensional model. Bound.-Layer Meteor, 18 , 495527.

  • Dickey, T. D., , and G. L. Mellor, 1980: Decaying turbulence in neutral and stratified fluids. J. Fluid Mech, 99 , 1331.

  • Hassid, S., , and B. Galperin, 1983: A turbulent energy model for geophysical flows. Bound.-Layer Meteor, 26 , 397412.

  • Hassid, S., , and B. Galperin, 2004: Comments on “An improved model for the turbulent PBL”,. J. Atmos. Sci, 61 , 11971199.

  • Hunt, J. C. R., , D. D. Stretch, , and R. E. Britter, 1988: Length scales in stably stratified turbulent flows and their use in turbulence models. Stably Stratified Flows and Dense Gas Dispersion, J. S. Puttock, Ed., Clarendon Press, 285–321.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kantha, L. H., 2003: On an improved model for turbulent PBL. J. Atmos. Sci, 60 , 22392246.

  • Kosovic, B., , and J. A. Curry, 2000: A large eddy simulation of a quasi-steady, stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci, 57 , 10521068.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Large, W. G., , J. C. McWilliams, , and S. C. Doney, 1994: Ocean vertical mixing: A review and a model with non-local boundary layer parameterization. Rev. Geophys, 32 , 363403.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Launder, B. E., , G. Reece, , and W. Rodi, 1975: Progress in the development of a Reynolds-stress turbulent closure. Fluid Mech, . 68 , 537566.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin, P. J., 1985: Simulation of the mixed layer at OWS November and Papa with several models. J. Geophys. Res, 90 , 903916.

  • Mason, P. J., 1994: Large-eddy simulation: A critical review of the technique. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc, 120 , 126.

  • Mellor, G. L., 1973: Analytic prediction of the properties of stratified planetary surface. J. Atmos. Sci, 30 , 10611069.

  • Mellor, G. L., , and T. Yamada, 1982: Development of a turbulence closure model for geophysical fluid problems. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys, 20 , 851875.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moeng, C. H., , and J. C. Wyngaard, 1989: Evaluation of turbulent transport and dissipation closures in second-order modeling. J. Atmos. Sci, 46 , 23112330.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moeng, C. H., , and P. Sullivan, 1994: A comparison of shear and buoyancy driven planetary boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci, 51 , 9991022.

  • Nakanishi, M., 2001: Improvement of the Mellor–Yamada turbulence closure model based on Large-eddy simulation data. Bound.- Layer Meteor, 99 , 349378.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schmidt, H., , and U. Schumann, 1989: Coherent structure of the convective boundary layer derived from LES. J. Fluid Mech, 200 , 511562.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schumann, U., 1990: LES of the upslope boundary layer. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc, 116 , 637670.

  • Schumann, U., 1991: Subgrid length scale for LES of stratified turbulence. Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn, 2 , 279290.

  • Speziale, C. G., , S. Sarkar, , and T. B. Datski, 1991: Modelling the pressure–strain correlation of turbulence: An invariant dynamical systems approach. J. Fluid Mech, 227 , 245272.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taulbee, D. B., 1992: An improved algebraic Reynolds stress model and corresponding nonlinear stress model. Phys. Fluids, A4. 11) 25552561.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Woods, J. D., 1969: On Richardson's number as a criterion for laminar–turbulent–laminar transition in the ocean and atmosphere. Radio Sci, 4 (12) 12891298.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 94 94 1
PDF Downloads 1 1 0

Reply

View More View Less
  • 1 NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, New York
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Corresponding author address: Dr. V. M. Canuto, NASA GISS, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025. Email: vcanuto@giss.nasa.gov

Corresponding author address: Dr. V. M. Canuto, NASA GISS, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025. Email: vcanuto@giss.nasa.gov

Save