• Anthes, R. A., 1982: Tropical Cyclones: Their Evolution, Structure and Effects. Meteor. Monogr. No. 41, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 208 pp.

  • Briegel, L. M., , and W. M. Frank, 1997: Large-scale influences on tropical cyclogenesis in the western North Pacific. Mon. Wea. Rev, 125 , 13971413.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carr III, L. E., , and R. L. Elsberry, 1994: Systematic and integrated approach to tropical cyclone track forecasting. Part I. Approach overview and description of meteorological basis. NPS Tech. Rep. NPS MR-94-002, 273 pp.

  • Carr III, L. E., , and R. L. Elsberry, 1995: Monsoonal interactions leading to sudden tropical cyclone track changes. Mon. Wea. Rev, 123 , 265289.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chan, J. C. L., , and R. T. Williams, 1987: Analytical and numerical studies of the beta-effect in tropical cyclone motion. Part I: Zero mean flow. J. Atmos. Sci, 44 , 12571265.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, C-P., , J-M. Chen, , P. A. Harr, , and L. E. Carr, 1996: Northwestward-propagating wave patterns over the tropical western North Pacific during summer. Mon. Wea. Rev, 124 , 22452266.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davidson, N. E., , and H. H. Hendon, 1989: Downstream development in the Southern Hemisphere monsoon during FGGE/WMONEX. Mon. Wea. Rev, 117 , 14581470.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dickinson, M., , and J. Molinari, 2002: Mixed Rossby–gravity waves and western Pacific tropical cyclogenesis. Part I: Synoptic evolution. J. Atmos. Sci, 59 , 21832196.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ferreira, R. N., , and W. H. Schubert, 1997: Barotropic aspects of ITCZ breakdown. J. Atmos. Sci, 54 , 261285.

  • Fiorino, M., , and R. L. Elsberry, 1989: Some aspects of vortex structure related to tropical cyclone motion. J. Atmos. Sci, 46 , 975990.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Flierl, G. R., 1984: Rossby wave radiation from a strongly nonlinear warm eddy. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 14 , 4758.

  • Flierl, G. R., , M. E. Stern, , and J. A. Whitehead, 1983: The physical significance of modons: Laboratory experiments and general integral constraints. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 7 , 233263.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frank, W. M., 1982: Large-scale characteristics of tropical cyclones. Mon. Wea. Rev, 110 , 572586.

  • Gray, W. M., 1968: Global view of the origin of tropical disturbances and storms. Mon. Wea. Rev, 96 , 669700.

  • Gray, W. M., 1975: Tropical cyclone genesis. Dept. of Atmospheric Science Paper 234, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO, 121 pp.

  • Gray, W. M., 1977: Tropical cyclone genesis in the western North Pacific. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 55 , 465482.

  • Holland, G. J., 1995: Scale interaction in the western Pacific monsoon. Meteor. Atmos. Phys, 56 , 5779.

  • Kuo, H-C., , J-H. Chen, , R. T. Williams, , and C-P. Chang, 2001: Rossby wave in zonally opposing mean flow: Behavior in northwest Pacific summer monsoon. J. Atmos. Sci, 58 , 10351050.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, K-H., , and N-C. Lau, 1990: Observed structure and propagation characteristics of tropical summertime synoptic scale disturbances. Mon. Wea. Rev, 118 , 18881913.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, K-H., , and N-C. Lau, 1992: The energetics and propagation dynamics of tropical summertime synoptic-scale disturbances. Mon. Wea. Rev, 120 , 25232539.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, T., , B. Fu, , X. Ge, , B. Wang, , and M. Peng, 2003: Satellite data analysis and numerical simulation of tropical cyclone formation. Geophys. Res. Lett, 30 , 21222126.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, T., , X. Ge, , B. Wang, , and T. Zhu, 2006: Tropical cyclogenesis associated with Rossby wave energy dispersion of a prexisting typhoon. Part II: Numerical simulations. J. Atmos. Sci, 63 , 13901409.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Luo, Z., 1994: Effect of energy dispersion on the structure and motion of tropical cyclone. Acta Meteor. Sin, 8 , 5159.

  • McDonald, N. R., 1998: The decay of cyclonic eddies by Rossby wave radiation. J. Fluid Mech, 361 , 237252.

  • Molinari, J., , D. Vollaro, , S. Skubis, , and M. Dickinson, 2000: Origin and mechanism of eastern Pacific tropical cyclogenesis: A case study. Mon. Wea. Rev, 128 , 125139.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Murakami, M., 1979: Large-scale aspects of deep convective activity over the GATE area. Mon. Wea. Rev, 107 , 9941013.

  • Ritchie, E. A., , and G. J. Holland, 1997: Scale interactions during the formation of Typhoon Irving. Mon. Wea. Rev, 125 , 13771396.

  • Ritchie, E. A., , and G. J. Holland, 1999: Large-scale patterns associated with tropical cyclogenesis in the western Pacific. Mon. Wea. Rev, 127 , 20272043.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shapiro, L. J., , and K. V. Ooyama, 1990: Vortex evolution on a beta plane. J. Atmos. Sci, 47 , 170187.

  • Sobel, A. H., , and C. S. Bretherton, 1999: Development of synoptic-scale disturbances over the summertime tropical northwest Pacific. J. Atmos. Sci, 56 , 31063127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trenberth, K. E., 1986: An assessment of the impact of transient eddies on the zonal flow during a blocking episode using localized Eliassen–Palm flux diagnostics. J. Atmos. Sci, 43 , 20702087.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, B., , and T. Li, 1994: Convective interaction with boundary-layer dynamics in the development of a tropical intraseasonal system. J. Atmos. Sci, 51 , 13861400.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zehnder, J. A., , D. Powell, , and D. Ropp, 1999: The interaction of easterly waves, orography, and the ITCZ in the genesis of eastern Pacific tropical cyclones. Mon. Wea. Rev, 127 , 15661585.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 74 74 14
PDF Downloads 55 55 10

Tropical Cyclogenesis Associated with Rossby Wave Energy Dispersion of a Preexisting Typhoon. Part I: Satellite Data Analyses

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Meteorology, and International Pacific Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

The structure and evolution characteristics of Rossby wave trains induced by tropical cyclone (TC) energy dispersion are revealed based on the Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) data. Among 34 cyclogenesis cases analyzed in the western North Pacific during 2000–01 typhoon seasons, six cases are associated with the Rossby wave energy dispersion of a preexisting TC. The wave trains are oriented in a northwest–southeast direction, with alternating cyclonic and anticyclonic vorticity circulation. A typical wavelength of the wave train is about 2500 km. The TC genesis is observed in the cyclonic circulation region of the wave train, possibly through a scale contraction process.

The satellite data analyses reveal that not all TCs have a Rossby wave train in their wakes. The occurrence of the Rossby wave train depends to a certain extent on the TC intensity and the background flow. Whether or not a Rossby wave train can finally lead to cyclogenesis depends on large-scale dynamic and thermodynamic conditions related to both the change of the seasonal mean state and the phase of the tropical intraseasonal oscillation. Stronger low-level convergence and cyclonic vorticity, weaker vertical shear, and greater midtropospheric moisture are among the favorable large-scale conditions. The rebuilding process of a conditional unstable stratification is important in regulating the frequency of TC genesis.

Corresponding author address: Prof. Tim Li, IPRC, and Dept. of Meteorology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2525 Correa Rd., Honolulu, HI 96822. Email: timli@hawaii.edu

Abstract

The structure and evolution characteristics of Rossby wave trains induced by tropical cyclone (TC) energy dispersion are revealed based on the Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) data. Among 34 cyclogenesis cases analyzed in the western North Pacific during 2000–01 typhoon seasons, six cases are associated with the Rossby wave energy dispersion of a preexisting TC. The wave trains are oriented in a northwest–southeast direction, with alternating cyclonic and anticyclonic vorticity circulation. A typical wavelength of the wave train is about 2500 km. The TC genesis is observed in the cyclonic circulation region of the wave train, possibly through a scale contraction process.

The satellite data analyses reveal that not all TCs have a Rossby wave train in their wakes. The occurrence of the Rossby wave train depends to a certain extent on the TC intensity and the background flow. Whether or not a Rossby wave train can finally lead to cyclogenesis depends on large-scale dynamic and thermodynamic conditions related to both the change of the seasonal mean state and the phase of the tropical intraseasonal oscillation. Stronger low-level convergence and cyclonic vorticity, weaker vertical shear, and greater midtropospheric moisture are among the favorable large-scale conditions. The rebuilding process of a conditional unstable stratification is important in regulating the frequency of TC genesis.

Corresponding author address: Prof. Tim Li, IPRC, and Dept. of Meteorology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2525 Correa Rd., Honolulu, HI 96822. Email: timli@hawaii.edu

Save