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Tropical Cyclogenesis Associated with Rossby Wave Energy Dispersion of a Preexisting Typhoon. Part II: Numerical Simulations

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  • 1 Department of Meteorology, and International Pacific Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii
  • | 2 Shanghai Typhoon Institute, Shanghai, China
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Abstract

The cyclogenesis events associated with the tropical cyclone (TC) energy dispersion are simulated in a 3D model. A new TC with realistic dynamic and thermodynamic structures forms in the wake of a preexisting TC when a large-scale monsoon gyre or a monsoon shear line flow is present. Maximum vorticity generation appears in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and the vorticity growth exhibits an oscillatory development. This oscillatory growth is also seen in the observed rainfall and cloud-top temperature fields. The diagnosis of the model output shows that the oscillatory development is attributed to the discharge and recharge of the PBL moisture and its interaction with convection and circulation. The moisture–convection feedback regulates the TC development through controlling the atmospheric stratification, raindrop-induced evaporative cooling and downdraft, PBL divergence, and vorticity generation. On one hand, ascending motion associated with deep convection transports moisture upward and leads to the discharge of PBL moisture and a convectively stable stratification. On the other hand, the convection-induced raindrops evaporate, leading to midlevel cooling and downdraft. The downdraft further leads to dryness and a reduction of equivalent potential temperature. This reduction along with the recharge of PBL moisture due to surface evaporation leads to reestablishment of a convectively unstable stratification and thus new convection.

Sensitivity experiments with both a single mesh (with a 15-km resolution) and a nested mesh (with a 5-km resolution in the inner mesh) indicate that TC energy dispersion alone in a resting environment does not lead to cyclogenesis, suggesting the important role of the wave train–mean flow interaction. A proper initial condition for background wind and moisture fields is crucial for maintaining a continuous vorticity growth through the multioscillatory phases.

Corresponding author address: Prof. Tim Li, IPRC, and Dept. of Meteorology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2525 Correa Rd., Honolulu, HI 96822. Email: timli@hawaii.edu

Abstract

The cyclogenesis events associated with the tropical cyclone (TC) energy dispersion are simulated in a 3D model. A new TC with realistic dynamic and thermodynamic structures forms in the wake of a preexisting TC when a large-scale monsoon gyre or a monsoon shear line flow is present. Maximum vorticity generation appears in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and the vorticity growth exhibits an oscillatory development. This oscillatory growth is also seen in the observed rainfall and cloud-top temperature fields. The diagnosis of the model output shows that the oscillatory development is attributed to the discharge and recharge of the PBL moisture and its interaction with convection and circulation. The moisture–convection feedback regulates the TC development through controlling the atmospheric stratification, raindrop-induced evaporative cooling and downdraft, PBL divergence, and vorticity generation. On one hand, ascending motion associated with deep convection transports moisture upward and leads to the discharge of PBL moisture and a convectively stable stratification. On the other hand, the convection-induced raindrops evaporate, leading to midlevel cooling and downdraft. The downdraft further leads to dryness and a reduction of equivalent potential temperature. This reduction along with the recharge of PBL moisture due to surface evaporation leads to reestablishment of a convectively unstable stratification and thus new convection.

Sensitivity experiments with both a single mesh (with a 15-km resolution) and a nested mesh (with a 5-km resolution in the inner mesh) indicate that TC energy dispersion alone in a resting environment does not lead to cyclogenesis, suggesting the important role of the wave train–mean flow interaction. A proper initial condition for background wind and moisture fields is crucial for maintaining a continuous vorticity growth through the multioscillatory phases.

Corresponding author address: Prof. Tim Li, IPRC, and Dept. of Meteorology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2525 Correa Rd., Honolulu, HI 96822. Email: timli@hawaii.edu

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