Optical and Microphysical Properties of Upper Clouds Measured with the Raman Lidar and Hydrometeor Videosonde: A Case Study on 29 March 2004 over Tsukuba, Japan

Tetsu Sakai A 21st Century COE Program, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan

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Narihiro Orikasa Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan

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Tomohiro Nagai Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan

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Masataka Murakami Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan

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Kenichi Kusunoki Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan

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Kazumasa Mori Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan

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Akihiro Hashimoto Advanced Earth Science and Technology Organization, Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan

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Takatsugu Matsumura Japan Science and Technology Agency, Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan

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Takashi Shibata Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan

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Abstract

Optical and microphysical properties of the upper clouds at an altitude range of 5–11 km were measured over Tsukuba, Japan, on 29–30 March 2004 using a ground-based Raman lidar and a balloon-borne hydrometeor videosonde (HYVIS). The Raman lidar measured the vertical distributions of the particle extinction coefficient, backscattering coefficients, depolarization ratio, and extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) at 532 nm; further, it measured the water vapor mixing ratio. The HYVIS measured the vertical distributions of the particle size, shape, cross-sectional area, and number concentration of the cloud particles by taking microscopic images. The HYVIS measurement showed that the cloud particles were ice crystals whose shapes were columnar, bulletlike, platelike, and irregular, and 7–400 μm in size. The Raman lidar measurement showed that the depolarization ratio ranged from 0% to 35% and the lidar ranged from 0.3 to 30 sr for the clouds in ice-saturated air. The comparison between the measured data and theoretical calculations of the cloud optical properties suggests that the observed variations in the depolarization ratio and lidar ratio were primarily due to the variation in the proportion of the horizontally oriented ice crystals in the clouds. The optical thickness of the cloud obtained from the lidar was about 2 times lower than that calculated from the HYVIS data, and the maximum extinction coefficient was about 5 times lower than the HYVIS data. The most probable reason for the differences is the horizontal inhomogeneities of the cloud properties between the measurements sites for the two instruments.

* Current affiliation: Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan

+ Current affiliation: Atmospheric Environment Division, Japan Meteorological Agency, Tokyo, Japan

Corresponding author address: Tetsu Sakai, Nagamine 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052, Japan. Email: tetsu@mri-jma.go.jp

Abstract

Optical and microphysical properties of the upper clouds at an altitude range of 5–11 km were measured over Tsukuba, Japan, on 29–30 March 2004 using a ground-based Raman lidar and a balloon-borne hydrometeor videosonde (HYVIS). The Raman lidar measured the vertical distributions of the particle extinction coefficient, backscattering coefficients, depolarization ratio, and extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) at 532 nm; further, it measured the water vapor mixing ratio. The HYVIS measured the vertical distributions of the particle size, shape, cross-sectional area, and number concentration of the cloud particles by taking microscopic images. The HYVIS measurement showed that the cloud particles were ice crystals whose shapes were columnar, bulletlike, platelike, and irregular, and 7–400 μm in size. The Raman lidar measurement showed that the depolarization ratio ranged from 0% to 35% and the lidar ranged from 0.3 to 30 sr for the clouds in ice-saturated air. The comparison between the measured data and theoretical calculations of the cloud optical properties suggests that the observed variations in the depolarization ratio and lidar ratio were primarily due to the variation in the proportion of the horizontally oriented ice crystals in the clouds. The optical thickness of the cloud obtained from the lidar was about 2 times lower than that calculated from the HYVIS data, and the maximum extinction coefficient was about 5 times lower than the HYVIS data. The most probable reason for the differences is the horizontal inhomogeneities of the cloud properties between the measurements sites for the two instruments.

* Current affiliation: Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan

+ Current affiliation: Atmospheric Environment Division, Japan Meteorological Agency, Tokyo, Japan

Corresponding author address: Tetsu Sakai, Nagamine 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052, Japan. Email: tetsu@mri-jma.go.jp

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