• Baldwin, M. P., , and T. J. Dunkerton, 2001: Stratospheric harbingers of anomalous weather regimes. Science, 294 , 581584.

  • Baldwin, M. P., , D. B. Stephenson, , D. W. J. Thompson, , T. J. Dunkerton, , A. J. Charlton, , and A. O’Neill, 2003: Stratospheric memory and skill of extended-range weather forecasts. Science, 301 , 636640.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Black, R. X., , B. A. McDaniel, , and W. A. Robinson, 2006: Stratosphere–troposphere coupling during spring onset. J. Climate, 19 , 48914901.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gillett, N. P., , and D. W. J. Thompson, 2003: Simulation of recent Southern Hemisphere climate change. Science, 302 , 273275.

  • Hio, Y., , and S. Yoden, 2005: Interannual variations of the seasonal march in the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere for 1979–2002 and characterization of the unprecedented year 2002. J. Atmos. Sci., 62 , 567579.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kallberg, P., , A. Simmons, , S. Uppala, , and M. Fuentes, 2004: The ERA-40 archive. ERA-40 Project Rep. Series 17, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, United Kingdom, 31 pp.

  • Limpasuvan, V., , D. W. J. Thompson, , and D. L. Hartmann, 2004: On the life cycle of Northern Hemisphere stratospheric sudden warmings. J. Climate, 17 , 25842596.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Livezey, R. E., , and W. Y. Chen, 1983: Statistical field significance and its determination by Monte-Carlo techniques. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111 , 4659.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McDaniel, B. A., , and R. X. Black, 2005: Intraseasonal dynamical evolution of the Northern Annular Mode. J. Climate, 18 , 38203839.

  • Orsolini, Y. J., , C. E. Randall, , G. L. Manney, , and D. R. Allen, 2005: An observational study of the final breakdown of the Southern Hemisphere stratospheric vortex in 2002. J. Atmos. Sci., 62 , 735747.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, D. W. J., , and J. M. Wallace, 2000: Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part I: Month-to-month variability. J. Climate, 13 , 10001016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, D. W. J., , and J. M. Wallace, 2001: Regional climate impacts of the Northern Hemisphere annular mode. Science, 293 , 8589.

  • Thompson, D. W. J., , and S. Solomon, 2002: Interpretation of recent Southern Hemisphere climate change. Science, 296 , 895899.

  • Thompson, D. W. J., , M. P. Baldwin, , and S. Solomon, 2005: Stratosphere–troposphere coupling in the Southern Hemisphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 62 , 708747.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Waugh, D. W., , and P. P. Rong, 2002: Interannual variability in the decay of lower stratospheric Arctic vortices. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 80 , 9971012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Waugh, D. W., , W. J. Randel, , S. Pawson, , P. A. Newman, , and E. R. Nash, 1999: Persistence of the lower stratospheric polar vortices. J. Geophys. Res., 104 , 2719127202.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 72 72 10
PDF Downloads 70 70 9

Interannual Variability in the Southern Hemisphere Circulation Organized by Stratospheric Final Warming Events

View More View Less
  • 1 School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

A composite observational analysis is presented demonstrating that austral stratospheric final warming (SFW) events provide a substantial organizing influence upon the large-scale atmospheric circulation in the Southern Hemisphere. In particular, the annual weakening of high-latitude westerlies in the upper troposphere and stratosphere is accelerated during SFW onset. This behavior is associated with a coherent annular circulation change with zonal wind decelerations (accelerations) at high (low) latitudes. The high-latitude stratospheric decelerations are induced by the anomalous wave driving of upward-propagating tropospheric waves. Longitudinally asymmetric circulation changes occur in the lower troposphere during SFW onset with regionally localized height increases (decreases) at subpolar (middle) latitudes. Importantly, the tropospheric and stratospheric circulation change patterns identified here are structurally distinct from the Southern Annular Mode. It is concluded that SFW events are linked to interannual atmospheric variability with potential bearing upon weather and climate prediction.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Robert X. Black, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0340. Email: rob.black@eas.gatech.edu

Abstract

A composite observational analysis is presented demonstrating that austral stratospheric final warming (SFW) events provide a substantial organizing influence upon the large-scale atmospheric circulation in the Southern Hemisphere. In particular, the annual weakening of high-latitude westerlies in the upper troposphere and stratosphere is accelerated during SFW onset. This behavior is associated with a coherent annular circulation change with zonal wind decelerations (accelerations) at high (low) latitudes. The high-latitude stratospheric decelerations are induced by the anomalous wave driving of upward-propagating tropospheric waves. Longitudinally asymmetric circulation changes occur in the lower troposphere during SFW onset with regionally localized height increases (decreases) at subpolar (middle) latitudes. Importantly, the tropospheric and stratospheric circulation change patterns identified here are structurally distinct from the Southern Annular Mode. It is concluded that SFW events are linked to interannual atmospheric variability with potential bearing upon weather and climate prediction.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Robert X. Black, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0340. Email: rob.black@eas.gatech.edu

Save