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PIV Measurements in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer within and above a Mature Corn Canopy. Part I: Statistics and Energy Flux

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  • 1 Center for Environmental and Applied Fluid Mechanics, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland
  • | 2 Center for Environmental and Applied Fluid Mechanics, Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland
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Abstract

Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements just within and above a mature corn canopy have been performed to clarify the small-scale spatial structure of the turbulence. The smallest resolved scales are about 15 times the Kolmogorov length scale (η ≈ 0.4 mm), the Taylor microscales are about 100η, and the Taylor scale Reynolds numbers range between Rλ = 2000 and 3000. The vertical profiles of mean flow and turbulence parameters match those found in previous studies. Frequency spectra, obtained using the data as time series, are combined with instantaneous spatial spectra to resolve more than five orders of magnitude of length scales. They display an inertial range spanning three decades. However, the small-scale turbulence in the dissipation range exhibits anisotropy at all measurement heights, in spite of apparent agreement with conditions for reaching local isotropy, following a high-Reynolds-number wind tunnel study. Directly calculated subgrid-scale (SGS) energy flux, determined by spatially filtering the PIV data, increases significantly with decreasing filter size, providing support for the existence of a spectral shortcut that bypasses the cascading process and injects energy directly into small scales. The highest measured SGS flux is about 40% of the estimated energy cascading rate as determined from a −5/3 fit to the spectra. Terms appearing in the turbulent kinetic energy budget that can be calculated from the PIV data are in agreement with previous results. Evidence of a very strong correlation between dissipation rate and out-of-plane component of the vorticity is demonstrated by a striking similarity between their time series.

* Current affiliation: Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion–IIT, Technion City, Haifa, Israel

+ Current affiliation: Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California

# Current affiliation: School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

Corresponding author address: J. Katz, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218. Email: katz@poseidon.me.jhu.edu

Abstract

Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements just within and above a mature corn canopy have been performed to clarify the small-scale spatial structure of the turbulence. The smallest resolved scales are about 15 times the Kolmogorov length scale (η ≈ 0.4 mm), the Taylor microscales are about 100η, and the Taylor scale Reynolds numbers range between Rλ = 2000 and 3000. The vertical profiles of mean flow and turbulence parameters match those found in previous studies. Frequency spectra, obtained using the data as time series, are combined with instantaneous spatial spectra to resolve more than five orders of magnitude of length scales. They display an inertial range spanning three decades. However, the small-scale turbulence in the dissipation range exhibits anisotropy at all measurement heights, in spite of apparent agreement with conditions for reaching local isotropy, following a high-Reynolds-number wind tunnel study. Directly calculated subgrid-scale (SGS) energy flux, determined by spatially filtering the PIV data, increases significantly with decreasing filter size, providing support for the existence of a spectral shortcut that bypasses the cascading process and injects energy directly into small scales. The highest measured SGS flux is about 40% of the estimated energy cascading rate as determined from a −5/3 fit to the spectra. Terms appearing in the turbulent kinetic energy budget that can be calculated from the PIV data are in agreement with previous results. Evidence of a very strong correlation between dissipation rate and out-of-plane component of the vorticity is demonstrated by a striking similarity between their time series.

* Current affiliation: Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion–IIT, Technion City, Haifa, Israel

+ Current affiliation: Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California

# Current affiliation: School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

Corresponding author address: J. Katz, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218. Email: katz@poseidon.me.jhu.edu

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