• Anderson, J., and Coauthors, 2004: The new GFDL global atmosphere and land model AM2–LM2: Evaluation with prescribed SST simulations. J. Climate, 17 , 46414673.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beljaars, A. C. M., 1995: The parameterization of surface fluxes in large-scale models under free convection. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 121 , 255270.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bengtsson, L., , M. Botzet, , and M. Esch, 1995: Hurricane-type vortices in a general circulation model. Tellus, 47A , 175196.

  • Bengtsson, L., , M. Botzet, , and M. Esch, 1996: Will greenhouse gas-induced warming over the next 50 years lead to higher frequency and greater intensity of hurricanes? Tellus, 48A , 5773.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Betts, A. K., 1990: Greenhouse warming and the tropical water budget. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 71 , 14641465.

  • Bretherton, C. S., , P. N. Blossey, , and M. Khairoutdinov, 2005: An energy-balance analysis of deep convective self-aggregation above uniform SST. J. Atmos. Sci., 62 , 42734292.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Broccoli, A., , and S. Manabe, 1990: Can existing climate models be used to study anthropogenic changes in tropical cyclone climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 17 , 19171920.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chauvin, F., , J-F. Royer, , and M. Déqué, 2006: Response of hurricane-type vortices to global warming as simulated by ARPEGE-climat at high resolution. Climate Dyn., 27 , 377399.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Emanuel, K. A., 1988: The maximum intensity of hurricanes. J. Atmos. Sci., 45 , 11431155.

  • Emanuel, K. A., 1999: Thermodynamic control of hurricane intensity. Nature, 401 , 665669.

  • Held, I. M., , and B. J. Soden, 2000: Water vapor feedback and global warming. Annu. Rev. Energy Environ., 25 , 441475.

  • Held, I. M., , M. Zhao, , and B. Wyman, 2007: Dynamic radiative–convective equilibria using GCM column physics. J. Atmos. Sci., 64 , 228238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, S. C., 1995: The evolution of vortices in vertical shear. I: Initially barotropic vortices. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 121 , 821851.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Knutson, T. K., , and S. Manabe, 1995: Time-mean response over the tropical Pacific to increased CO2 in a coupled ocean–atmosphere model. J. Climate, 8 , 21812199.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Knutson, T. K., , R. E. Tuleya, , and Y. Kurihara, 1998: Simulated increase of hurricane intensities in a CO2-warmed climate. Science, 279 , 10181021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Landsea, C. W., 1993: A climatology of intense (or major) Atlantic hurricanes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121 , 17031713.

  • McDonald, R. E., , D. G. Bleaken, , D. R. Creswell, , V. D. Pope, , and C. A. Senior, 2005: Tropical storms: Representation and diagnosis in climate models and the impact of climate change. Climate Dyn., 25 , 1936.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nolan, D. S., , E. D. Rappin, , and K. A. Emanuel, 2007: Tropical cyclogenesis sensitivity to environmental parameters in radiative–convective equilibrium. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 133 , 20852107.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oouchi, K., , J. Yoshimura, , H. Yoshimura, , R. Mizuta, , S. Kusunoki, , and A. Noda, 2006: Tropical cyclone climatology in a global-warming climate as simulated in a 20 km-mesh global atmospheric model: Frequency and wind intensity analyses. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 84 , 259276.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reasor, P. D., , M. T. Montgomery, , and L. D. Grasso, 2004: A new look at the problem of tropical cyclones in vertical shear flow: Vortex resiliency. J. Atmos. Sci., 61 , 322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sugi, M., , A. Noda, , and N. Sato, 2002: Influence of the global warming on tropical cyclone climatology: An experiment with the JMA global model. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 80 , 249272.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yoshimura, J., , M. Sugi, , and A. Noda, 2006: Influence of greenhouse warming on tropical cyclone frequency. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 84 , 405428.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 34 34 18
PDF Downloads 15 15 11

Horizontally Homogeneous Rotating Radiative–Convective Equilibria at GCM Resolution

View More View Less
  • 1 NOAA/Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey
  • 2 Program in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

Rotating radiative–convective equilibrium, using the column physics and resolution of GCMs, is proposed as a useful framework for studying the tropical storm–like vortices produced by global models. These equilibria are illustrated using the column physics and dynamics of a version of the GFDL Atmospheric Model 2 (AM2) at resolutions of 220, 110, and 55 km in a large 2 × 104 km square horizontally homogeneous domain with fixed sea surface temperature and uniform Coriolis parameter. The large domain allows a number of tropical storms to exist simultaneously. Once equilibrium is attained, storms often persist for hundreds of days. The number of storms decreases as sea surface temperatures increase, while the average intensity increases. As the background rotation is decreased, the number of storms also decreases. At these resolutions and with this parameterization of convection, a dense collection of tropical storms is always the end state of moist convection in the cases examined.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Isaac M. Held, NOAA/Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton University, Forrestal Campus/U.S. Route 1, P.O. Box 308, Princeton, NJ 08542. Email: isaac.held@noaa.gov

Abstract

Rotating radiative–convective equilibrium, using the column physics and resolution of GCMs, is proposed as a useful framework for studying the tropical storm–like vortices produced by global models. These equilibria are illustrated using the column physics and dynamics of a version of the GFDL Atmospheric Model 2 (AM2) at resolutions of 220, 110, and 55 km in a large 2 × 104 km square horizontally homogeneous domain with fixed sea surface temperature and uniform Coriolis parameter. The large domain allows a number of tropical storms to exist simultaneously. Once equilibrium is attained, storms often persist for hundreds of days. The number of storms decreases as sea surface temperatures increase, while the average intensity increases. As the background rotation is decreased, the number of storms also decreases. At these resolutions and with this parameterization of convection, a dense collection of tropical storms is always the end state of moist convection in the cases examined.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Isaac M. Held, NOAA/Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton University, Forrestal Campus/U.S. Route 1, P.O. Box 308, Princeton, NJ 08542. Email: isaac.held@noaa.gov

Save