• Angell, J. K., , and J. Korshover, 1970: Quasi-biennial, annual, and semiannual zonal wind and temperature harmonic amplitudes and phases in the stratosphere and low mesosphere of the Northern Hemisphere. J. Geophys. Res., 75 (3) 543550.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baldwin, M. P., and Coauthors, 2001: The quasi-biennial oscillation. Rev. Geophys., 39 , 179229.

  • Camp, C. D., , and K. K. Tung, 2007: The influence of the solar cycle and QBO on the late-winter stratospheric polar vortex. J. Atmos. Sci., 64 , 12671283.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cordero, E. C., , and T. R. Nathan, 2005: A new pathway for communicating the 11-year solar cycle signal to the QBO. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32 , L18805. doi:10.1029/2005GL023696.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dunkerton, T. J., 1983: Modification of stratospheric circulation by race constituent changes? J. Geophys. Res., 88 , 1083110836.

  • Dunkerton, T. J., 1997: The role of gravity waves in the quasi-biennial oscillation. J. Geophys. Res., 102 , (D22). 2605326076.

  • Fischer, P., , and K. K. Tung, 2008: A reexamination of the QBO period modulation by the solar cycle. J. Geophys. Res., 113 , D07114. doi:10.1029/2007JD008983.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hamilton, K., 2002: On the quasi-decadal modulation of the stratospheric QBO period. J. Climate, 15 , 25622565.

  • Hasebe, F., 1983: Interannual variations of global total ozone revealed from Nimbus 4 BUV and ground-based observations. J. Geophys. Res., 88 , (C11). 68196834.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holton, J. R., , and R. S. Lindzen, 1972: An updated theory for the quasi-biennial cycle of the tropical stratosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 29 , 10761080.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holton, J. R., , and H. C. Tan, 1980: The influence of the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation on the global circulation at 50 mb. J. Atmos. Sci., 37 , 22002208.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holton, J. R., , and H. C. Tan, 1982: The quasi-biennial oscillation in the Northern Hemisphere lower stratosphere. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 60 , 140148.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jackman, C., , E. L. Fleming, , S. Chandra, , D. B. Considine, , and J. E. Rosenfield, 1996: Past, present, and future modeled ozone trends with comparisons to observed trends. J. Geophys. Res., 101 , (D22). 2875328767.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kalnay, E., and Coauthors, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77 , 437471.

  • Kinnersley, J. S., , and R. S. Harwood, 1993: An isentropic two-dimensional model with an interactive parameterization of dynamical and chemical planetary-wave fluxes. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 119 , 11671193.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kinnersley, J. S., , and S. Pawson, 1996: The descent rates of the shear zones of the equatorial QBO. J. Atmos. Sci., 53 , 19371949.

  • Kistler, R., and Coauthors, 2001: The NCEP–NCAR 50-year reanalysis: Monthly means CD–ROM and documentation. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82 , 247267.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kuai, L., , R. L. Shia, , X. Jiang, , K. K. Tung, , and Y. L. Yung, 2009: Nonstationary synchronization of equatorial QBO with SAO in observations and a model. J. Atmos. Sci., 66 , 16541664.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Labitzk, K., 1982: On the interannual variability of the middle stratosphere during the northern winters. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 60 , 124139.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mayr, H. G., , J. G. Mengel, , D. P. Drob, , H. S. Porter, , and K. L. Chan, 2003: Modeling studies with QBO: II. Solar cycle effect. J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys., 65 , 901916.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oltmans, S. J., , and J. London, 1982: The quasi-biennial oscillation in atmospheric ozone. J. Geophys. Res., 87 , (C11). 89818989.

  • Pascoe, C. L., , L. J. Gray, , S. A. Crooks, , M. N. Juckes, , and M. P. Baldwin, 2005: The quasi-biennial oscillation: Analysis using ERA-40 data. J. Geophys. Res., 110 , D08105. doi:10.1029/2004JD004941.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pawson, S., , and M. Fiorino, 1998: A comparison of reanalyses in the tropical stratosphere. Part 2: The quasi-biennial oscillation. Climate Dyn., 14 , 645658.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Plumb, R. A., 1977: Interaction of two internal waves with mean flow: Implications for theory of quasi-biennial oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci., 34 , 18471858.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Plumb, R. A., , and R. C. Bell, 1982a: Equatorial waves in steady zonal shear flow. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 108 , 313334.

  • Plumb, R. A., , and R. C. Bell, 1982b: A model of the quasi-biennial oscillation on an equatorial beta-plane. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 108 , 335352.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Randel, W. J., , and F. Wu, 1996: Isolation of the ozone QBO in SAGE II data by singular-value decomposition. J. Atmos. Sci., 53 , 25462559.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Salby, M. L., , and P. F. Callaghan, 2000: Connection between the solar cycle and the QBO: The missing link. J. Climate, 13 , 26522662.

  • Soukharev, B. E., , and L. L. Hood, 2001: Possible solar modulation of the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation: Additional statistical evidence. J. Geophys. Res., 106 , (D14). 1485514868.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Uppala, S. M., and Coauthors, 2005: The ERA-40 Re-Analysis. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 131 , 29613012.

  • Zawodny, J. M., , and M. P. McCormick, 1991: Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements of the quasi-biennial oscillations in ozone and nitrogen dioxide. J. Geophys. Res., 96 , (D5). 93719377.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 12 12 2
PDF Downloads 8 8 0

Modulation of the Period of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation by the Solar Cycle

View More View Less
  • 1 Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California
  • | 2 Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Houston, Houston, Texas
  • | 3 Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
  • | 4 Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

The authors examine the mechanism of solar cycle modulation of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) period using the Two-and-a-Half-Dimensional Interactive Isentropic Research (THINAIR) model. Previous model results (using 2D and 3D models of varying complexity) have not convincingly established the proposed link of longer QBO periods during solar minima. Observational evidence for such a modulation is also controversial because it is only found during the period from the 1960s to the early 1990s, which is contaminated by volcanic aerosols. In the model, 200- and 400-yr runs without volcano influence can be obtained, long enough to establish some statistical robustness. Both in model and observed data, there is a strong synchronization of the QBO period with integer multiples of the semiannual oscillation (SAO) in the upper stratosphere. Under the current level of wave forcing, the period of the QBO jumps from one multiple of SAO to another and back so that it averages to 28 months, never settling down to a constant period. The “decadal” variability in the QBO period takes the form of “quantum” jumps; these, however, do not appear to follow the level of the solar flux in either the observation or the model using realistic quasi-periodic solar cycle (SC) forcing. To understand the solar modulation of the QBO period, the authors perform model runs with a range of perpetual solar forcing, either lower or higher than the current level. At the current level of solar forcing, the model QBO period consists of a distribution of four and five SAO periods, similar to the observed distribution. This distribution changes as solar forcing changes. For lower (higher) solar forcing, the distribution shifts to more (less) four SAO periods than five SAO periods. The record-averaged QBO period increases with the solar forcing. However, because this effect is rather weak and is detectable only with exaggerated forcing, the authors suggest that the previous result of the anticorrelation of the QBO period with the SC seen in short observational records reflects only a chance behavior of the QBO period, which naturally jumps in a nonstationary manner even if the solar forcing is held constant, and the correlation can change as the record gets longer.

Corresponding author address: Le Kuai, Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, MC 150-21, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125. Email: kl@gps.caltech.edu

Abstract

The authors examine the mechanism of solar cycle modulation of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) period using the Two-and-a-Half-Dimensional Interactive Isentropic Research (THINAIR) model. Previous model results (using 2D and 3D models of varying complexity) have not convincingly established the proposed link of longer QBO periods during solar minima. Observational evidence for such a modulation is also controversial because it is only found during the period from the 1960s to the early 1990s, which is contaminated by volcanic aerosols. In the model, 200- and 400-yr runs without volcano influence can be obtained, long enough to establish some statistical robustness. Both in model and observed data, there is a strong synchronization of the QBO period with integer multiples of the semiannual oscillation (SAO) in the upper stratosphere. Under the current level of wave forcing, the period of the QBO jumps from one multiple of SAO to another and back so that it averages to 28 months, never settling down to a constant period. The “decadal” variability in the QBO period takes the form of “quantum” jumps; these, however, do not appear to follow the level of the solar flux in either the observation or the model using realistic quasi-periodic solar cycle (SC) forcing. To understand the solar modulation of the QBO period, the authors perform model runs with a range of perpetual solar forcing, either lower or higher than the current level. At the current level of solar forcing, the model QBO period consists of a distribution of four and five SAO periods, similar to the observed distribution. This distribution changes as solar forcing changes. For lower (higher) solar forcing, the distribution shifts to more (less) four SAO periods than five SAO periods. The record-averaged QBO period increases with the solar forcing. However, because this effect is rather weak and is detectable only with exaggerated forcing, the authors suggest that the previous result of the anticorrelation of the QBO period with the SC seen in short observational records reflects only a chance behavior of the QBO period, which naturally jumps in a nonstationary manner even if the solar forcing is held constant, and the correlation can change as the record gets longer.

Corresponding author address: Le Kuai, Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, MC 150-21, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125. Email: kl@gps.caltech.edu

Save