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A Density Current Parameterization Coupled with Emanuel’s Convection Scheme. Part I: The Models

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  • 1 Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Paris, France
  • 2 CNRM-GAME, Météo-France, and CNRS, Toulouse, France
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Abstract

The aim of the present series of papers is to develop a density current parameterization for global circulation models. This first paper is devoted to the presentation of this new wake parameterization coupled with Emanuel’s convective scheme. The model represents a population of identical circular cold pools (the wakes) with vertical frontiers. The wakes are cooled by the precipitating downdrafts while the outside area is warmed by the subsidence induced by the saturated drafts. The budget equations for mass, energy, and water yield evolution equations for the prognostic variables (the vertical profiles of the temperature and humidity differences between the wakes and their exterior). They also provide additional terms for the equations of the mean variables. The driving terms of the wake equations are the differential heating and drying due to convective drafts. The action of the convection on the wakes is implemented by splitting the convective tendency and attributing the effect of the precipitating downdrafts to the wake region and the effect of the saturated drafts to their exterior. Conversely, the action of the wakes on convection is implemented by introducing two new variables representing the convergence at the leading edge of the wakes. The available lifting energy (ALE) determines the triggers of deep convection: convection occurs when ALE exceeds the convective inhibition. The available lifting power (ALP) determines the intensity of convection; it is equal to the power input into the system by the collapse of the wakes. The ALE/ALP closure, together with the splitting of the convective heating and drying, implements the full coupling between wake and convection. The coupled wake–convection scheme thus created makes it possible to represent the moist convective processes more realistically, to prepare the coupling of convection with boundary layer and orographic processes, and to consider simulating the propagation of convective systems.

Corresponding author address: J.-Y. Grandpeix, Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Boite 99, 4, place Jussieu, F-75252, Paris CEDEX 05, France. Email: jyg@lmd.jussieu.fr

Abstract

The aim of the present series of papers is to develop a density current parameterization for global circulation models. This first paper is devoted to the presentation of this new wake parameterization coupled with Emanuel’s convective scheme. The model represents a population of identical circular cold pools (the wakes) with vertical frontiers. The wakes are cooled by the precipitating downdrafts while the outside area is warmed by the subsidence induced by the saturated drafts. The budget equations for mass, energy, and water yield evolution equations for the prognostic variables (the vertical profiles of the temperature and humidity differences between the wakes and their exterior). They also provide additional terms for the equations of the mean variables. The driving terms of the wake equations are the differential heating and drying due to convective drafts. The action of the convection on the wakes is implemented by splitting the convective tendency and attributing the effect of the precipitating downdrafts to the wake region and the effect of the saturated drafts to their exterior. Conversely, the action of the wakes on convection is implemented by introducing two new variables representing the convergence at the leading edge of the wakes. The available lifting energy (ALE) determines the triggers of deep convection: convection occurs when ALE exceeds the convective inhibition. The available lifting power (ALP) determines the intensity of convection; it is equal to the power input into the system by the collapse of the wakes. The ALE/ALP closure, together with the splitting of the convective heating and drying, implements the full coupling between wake and convection. The coupled wake–convection scheme thus created makes it possible to represent the moist convective processes more realistically, to prepare the coupling of convection with boundary layer and orographic processes, and to consider simulating the propagation of convective systems.

Corresponding author address: J.-Y. Grandpeix, Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Boite 99, 4, place Jussieu, F-75252, Paris CEDEX 05, France. Email: jyg@lmd.jussieu.fr

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