• Allee, P. A., , and B. B. Phillips, 1959: Measurements of cloud-droplet charge, electric field, and polar conductivities supercooled clouds. J. Meteor., 16 , 405410.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beard, K. V., , H. T. Ochs, , and C. H. Twohy, 2004: Aircraft measurements of high average charges on cloud drops in layer clouds. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31 , L14111. doi:10.1029/2004GL020465.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burns, G. B., , B. A. Tinsley, , W. J. R. French, , O. A. Troshichev, , and A. V. Frank-Kamenetsky, 2008: Atmospheric circuit influences on ground-level pressure in the Antarctic and Arctic. J. Geophys. Res., 113 , D15112. doi:10.1029/2007JD009618.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carrier, L. W., , G. A. Cato, , and K. J. von Essen, 1967: The backscattering and extinction of visible and infrared radiation by selected major cloud models. Appl. Opt., 6 , 12091216.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • COESA, 1976: U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 1976. NOAA, 227 pp.

  • Fujioka, N., , Y. Tsunoda, , A. Sugimora, , and K. Arai, 1983: Influence of humidity on variation of ion mobility with life time in atmospheric air. IEEE Trans. Power Appar. Syst., 102 , 911917.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Garcia, R. R., , and S. Solomon, 1983: A numerical model of the zonally averaged dynamical and chemical structure of the middle atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 88 , 13791400.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Griffiths, R. F., , J. Latham, , and V. Myers, 1974: The ionic conductivity of electrified clouds. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 100 , 181190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hays, P. B., , and R. G. Roble, 1979: A quasi-static model of global atmospheric electricity. 1. The lower atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 84 , 32913305.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hess, M., , P. Koepke, , and I. Schult, 1998: Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: The software package OPAC. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79 , 831844.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heymsfield, A. J., , and C. M. Platt, 1984: A parameterization of the particle size spectrum of ice clouds in terms of the ambient temperature and the ice water content. J. Atmos. Sci., 41 , 846855.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hogan, T. F., , and T. Rosmond, 1991: The description of the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System’s spectral forecast model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 119 , 17861851.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoppel, W. A., 1985: Ion-aerosol attachment coefficients, ion depletion, and the charge distribution on aerosols. J. Geophys. Res., 90 , (D4). 59175923.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ISCCP, cited. 2004: International Satellite Cloud Climate Project: Climatological Summary Product (D2). [Available online at http://isccp.giss.nasa.gov/products/products.html].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kartalev, M. D., , M. J. Rycroft, , M. Fuellekrug, , V. O. Papitashvili, , and V. I. Keremidarska, 2006: A possible explanation for the dominant effect of South American thunderstorms on the Carnegie curve. J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys., 68 , 457468.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liou, K-N., 1992: Radiation and Cloud Processes in the Atmosphere. Oxford University Press, 473 pp.

  • Makino, M., , and T. Ogawa, 1985: Quantitative estimation of global circuit. J. Geophys. Res., 90 , (D4). 59615966.

  • Pluvinage, P., 1946: Étude théorique et expérimentale de la conductibilité électrique dans les nuages non orageux. Ann. Geophys., 2 , 3154. 160178.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pruppacher, H. R., , and J. D. Klett, 1997: Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation. 2nd ed. Kluwer, 954 pp.

  • Ridout, J., , and T. Rosmond, 1996: Global modeling of cloud radiative effects using ISCCP cloud data. J. Climate, 9 , 14791496.

  • Roble, R. G., , and P. B. Hays, 1979: A quasi-static model of global atmospheric electricity. 2. Electrical coupling between the upper and the lower atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 84 , 72477256.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rossow, W. B., , and R. A. Schiffer, 1999: Advances in understanding clouds from ISCCP. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 80 , 22612287.

  • Sapkota, B. K., , and N. C. Varshneya, 1990: On the global atmospheric electrical circuit. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 50 , 120.

  • Simmons, A. J., , D. M. Burridge, , M. Jarraud, , C. Girard, , and W. Wergen, 1989: The ECMWF medium-range prediction models: Development of the numerical formulations and the impact of increased resolution. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 40 , 2860.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tinsley, B. A., 2000: Influence of the solar wind on the global electric circuit, and inferred effects on cloud microphysics, temperature, and dynamics of the troposphere. Space Sci. Rev., 94 , 231258.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tinsley, B. A., 2004: Scavenging of condensation nuclei in clouds: Dependence of sign of electroscavenging effect on droplet and CCN sizes. Extended Abstracts, 14th Conf. on Cloud Physics and Precipitation, Bologna, Italy, ICCP, 248–252.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tinsley, B. A., 2008: The global atmospheric electric circuit and its effects on cloud microphysics. Rep. Prog. Phys., 71 , 066801. doi:10.1088/0034-4885/71/6/066801.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tinsley, B. A., , and F. Yu, 2004: Atmospheric ionization and clouds as links between solar activity and climate. Solar Variability and its Effects on Climate, Geophys. Monogr., Vol. 141, Amer. Geophys. Union, 321–339.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tinsley, B. A., , and L. Zhou, 2006: Initial results of a global circuit model with variable stratospheric and tropospheric aerosol. J. Geophys. Res., 111 , D16205. doi:10.1029/2005JD006988.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tinsley, B. A., , R. P. Rohrbaugh, , M. Hei, , and K. V. Beard, 2000: Effects of image charges on the scavenging of aerosol particles by cloud droplets and on droplet charging and possible ice nucleation process. J. Atmos. Sci., 57 , 21182134.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tinsley, B. A., , R. P. Rohrbaugh, , and M. Hei, 2001: Electroscavenging in clouds with broad droplet size distributions and weak electrification. Atmos. Res., 59–60 , 115135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tinsley, B. A., , L. Zhou, , and A. Plemmons, 2006: Changes in scavenging of particles by droplets due to weak electrification in clouds. Atmos. Res., 79 , 266295.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, E. R., , and S. J. Heckman, 1993: The local diurnal variation of cloud electrification and the global diurnal variation of negative charge on the earth. J. Geophys. Res., 98 , (D3). 52215234.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, E. R., , V. Mushtak, , D. Rosenfeld, , S. Goodman, , and D. Boccippio, 2005: Thermodynamic contributions favorable to superlative thunderstorm updrafts, mixed phase microphysics and lightning flash rates. Atmos. Res., 76 , 288306.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, F., , and R. P. Turco, 2001: From molecular clusters to nanoparticles: Role of ambient ionization in tropospheric aerosol formation. J. Geophys. Res., 106 , (D5). 47974814.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhou, L., , and B. A. Tinsley, 2007: Production of space charge at the boundaries of layer clouds. J. Geophys. Res., 112 , D11203. doi:10.1029/2006JD007998.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhou, L., , B. A. Tinsley, , and A. Plemmons, 2009: Scavenging in weakly electrified saturated and subsaturated clouds, treating aerosol particles and droplets as conducting spheres. J. Geophys. Res., 114 , D18201. doi:10.1029/2008JD011527.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 34 34 11
PDF Downloads 17 17 6

Global Circuit Model with Clouds

View More View Less
  • 1 Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science, Ministry of Education, Department of Geography, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China, and The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas
  • 2 The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

Cloud data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) database have been introduced into the global circuit model developed by . Using the cloud-top pressure data and cloud type information, the authors have estimated the cloud thickness for each type of cloud. A treatment of the ion pair concentration in the cloud layer that depends on the radii and concentration of the cloud droplets is used to evaluate the reduction of conductivity in the cloud layer. The conductivities within typical clouds are found to be in the range of 2%–5% of that of cloud-free air at the same altitude, for the range of altitudes for typical low clouds to typical high clouds. The global circuit model was used to determine the increase in columnar resistance of each grid element location for various months in years of high and low volcanic and solar activity, taking into account the observed fractional cloud cover for different cloud types and thickness in each location. For a single 5° × 5° grid element in the Indian Ocean, for example, with the observed fractional cloud cover amounts for low, middle, and high clouds each near 20%, the ionosphere-to-surface column resistance increased by about 10%. (For 100%, fraction—that is, uniformly overcast conditions—for each of the cloud types, the increase depends on the cloud height and thickness and is about a factor of 10 for each of the lower-level clouds in this example and a factor of 2 for the cirrus cloud.) It was found that treating clouds, in the fraction of each grid element in which they were present, as having zero conductivity made very little difference to the results. The increase in global total resistance for the global ensemble of columns in the ionosphere–earth return path in the global circuit was about 10%, applicable to the several solar and volcanic activity conditions, but this is probably an upper limit, in light of the unavailability of data on subkilometer breaks in cloud cover.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Limin Zhou, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Department of Geography, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China. Email: zhoulim@gmail.com

Abstract

Cloud data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) database have been introduced into the global circuit model developed by . Using the cloud-top pressure data and cloud type information, the authors have estimated the cloud thickness for each type of cloud. A treatment of the ion pair concentration in the cloud layer that depends on the radii and concentration of the cloud droplets is used to evaluate the reduction of conductivity in the cloud layer. The conductivities within typical clouds are found to be in the range of 2%–5% of that of cloud-free air at the same altitude, for the range of altitudes for typical low clouds to typical high clouds. The global circuit model was used to determine the increase in columnar resistance of each grid element location for various months in years of high and low volcanic and solar activity, taking into account the observed fractional cloud cover for different cloud types and thickness in each location. For a single 5° × 5° grid element in the Indian Ocean, for example, with the observed fractional cloud cover amounts for low, middle, and high clouds each near 20%, the ionosphere-to-surface column resistance increased by about 10%. (For 100%, fraction—that is, uniformly overcast conditions—for each of the cloud types, the increase depends on the cloud height and thickness and is about a factor of 10 for each of the lower-level clouds in this example and a factor of 2 for the cirrus cloud.) It was found that treating clouds, in the fraction of each grid element in which they were present, as having zero conductivity made very little difference to the results. The increase in global total resistance for the global ensemble of columns in the ionosphere–earth return path in the global circuit was about 10%, applicable to the several solar and volcanic activity conditions, but this is probably an upper limit, in light of the unavailability of data on subkilometer breaks in cloud cover.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Limin Zhou, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Department of Geography, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China. Email: zhoulim@gmail.com

Save