• Bamzai, A. S., , and J. Shukla, 1999: Relation between Eurasian snow cover, snow depth, and the Indian summer monsoon: An observational study. J. Climate, 12, 31173132.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnett, T. P., , L. Dumenil, , U. Schlese, , E. Roeckner, , and M. Latif, 1989: The effect of Eurasian snow cover on regional and global climate variations. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 661685.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, S. C., , and K. E. Trenberth, 1988a: Forced planetary waves in the Northern Hemisphere winter–wave-coupled orographic and thermal forcings. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 682704.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, S. C., , and K. E. Trenberth, 1988b: Orographically forced planetary-waves in the Northern Hemisphere winter–steady-state model with wave-coupled lower boundary formulation. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 657680.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, J., , and D. Rind, 1991: The effect of snow cover on the climate. J. Climate, 4, 689706.

  • Cohen, J., , and D. Entekhabi, 2001: The influence of snow cover on Northern Hemisphere climate variability. Atmos.–Ocean, 39, 3553.

  • Dyer, J. L., , and T. L. Mote, 2006: Spatial variability and trends in observed snow depth over North America. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L16503, doi:10.1029/2006GL027258.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ge, Y., , G. Gong, , and A. Frei, 2009: Physical mechanisms linking the winter Pacific–North American teleconnection pattern to spring North American snow depth. J. Climate, 22, 51355148.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gong, G., , D. Entekhabi, , and J. Cohen, 2003a: Modeled Northern Hemisphere winter climate response to realistic Siberian snow anomalies. J. Climate, 16, 39173931.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gong, G., , D. Entekhabi, , and J. Cohen, 2003b: Relative impacts of Siberian and North American snow anomalies on the winter Arctic Oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, L16503, doi:10.1029/2006GL027258.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gong, G., , D. Entekhabi, , and J. Cohen, 2004: Orographic constraints on a modeled Siberian snow–tropospheric–stratospheric teleconnection pathway. J. Climate, 17, 11761189.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Held, I. M., , and B. J. Hoskins, 1985: Large-scale eddies and the general circulation of the troposphere. Adv. Geophys., 28, 331.

  • Held, I. M., , M. F. Ting, , and H. L. Wang, 2002: Northern winter stationary waves: Theory and modeling. J. Climate, 15, 21252144.

  • Hoerling, M. P., , and M. F. Ting, 1994: Organization of extratropical transients during El Niño. J. Climate, 7, 745766.

  • Hoerling, M. P., , M. F. Ting, , and A. Kumar, 1995: Zonal flow–stationary wave relationship during El Niño—Implications for seasonal forecasting. J. Climate, 8, 18381852.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoskins, B. J., , and A. J. Simmons, 1975: A multi-layer spectral model and the semi-implicit method. Quart .J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 101, 637655.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoskins, B. J., , and D. J. Karoly, 1981: The steady linear response of a spherical atmosphere to thermal and orographic forcing. J. Atmos. Sci., 38, 11791196.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Joseph, R., , M. F. Ting, , and P. J. Kushner, 2004: The global stationary wave response to climate change in a coupled GCM. J. Climate, 17, 540556.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Karl, T. R., , P. Y. Groisman, , R. W. Knight, , and R. R. Heim, 1993: Recent variations of snow cover and snowfall in North America and their relation to precipitation and temperature variations. J. Climate, 6, 13271344.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klingaman, N. P., , B. Hanson, , and D. J. Leathers, 2008: A teleconnection between forced Great Plains snow cover and European winter climate. J. Climate, 21, 24662483.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leathers, D. J., , and D. A. Robinson, 1993: The association between extremes in North American snow cover extent and United States temperatures. J. Climate, 6, 13451355.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leathers, D. J., , T. L. Mote, , A. J. Groundstein, , D. A. Robinson, , K. Felter, , K. Conrad, , and L. Sedywitz, 2002: Associations between continental-scale snow cover anomalies and air mass frequencies across eastern North America. Int. J. Climatol., 22, 14731494.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nigam, S., , I. M. Held, , and S. W. Lyons, 1986: Linear simulation of the stationary eddies in a general circulation model. Part 1: The no-mountain model. J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 29442961.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nigam, S., , I. M. Held, , and S. W. Lyons, 1988: Linear simulation of the stationary eddies in a GCM. Part II: The mountain model. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 14331452.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Plumb, R. A., 1985: On the three-dimensional propagation of stationary waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 217229.

  • Qian, B. D., , and M. A. Saunders, 2003: Summer U.K. temperature and its links to preceding Eurasian snow cover, North Atlantic SSTS, and the NAO. J. Climate, 16, 41084120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raisanen, J., 2008: Warmer climate: Less or more snow?. Climate Dyn., 30, 307319.

  • Ringler, T. D., , and K. H. Cook, 1997: Factors controlling nonlinearity in mechanically forced stationary waves over orography. J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 26122629.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ringler, T. D., , and K. H. Cook, 1999: Understanding the seasonality of orographically forced stationary waves: Interaction between mechanical and thermal forcing. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 11541174.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Saunders, M., , B. Qian, , and B. Lloyd-Hughes, 2003: Summer snow extent heralding of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1378, doi:10.1029/2002GL016832.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schneider, E. K., 1989: A method for direct solution of a steady linearized spectral general circulation model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117, 21372141.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sobolowski, S., , G. Gong, , and M. Ting, 2007: Northern Hemisphere winter climate variability: Response to North American snow cover anomalies and orography. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L16825, doi:10.1029/2007GL030573.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sobolowski, S., , G. Gong, , and M. F. Ting, 2010: Modeled climate state and dynamic responses to anomalous north american snow cover. J. Climate, 23, 785799.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ting, M. F., 1994: Maintenance of northern summer stationary waves in a GCM. J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 32863308.

  • Ting, M. F., , and I. M. Held, 1990: The stationary wave response to a tropical SST anomaly in an idealized GCM. J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 25462566.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ting, M. F., , and L. H. Yu, 1998: Steady response to tropical heating in wavy linear and nonlinear baroclinic models. J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 35653582.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ting, M. F., , H. L. Wang, , and L. H. Yu, 2001: Nonlinear stationary wave maintenance and seasonal cycle in the GFDL R30 GCM. J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 23312354.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trenberth, K. E., 1991: Storm tracks in the Southern Hemisphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 48, 21592178.

  • Valdes, P. J., , and B. J. Hoskins, 1989: Linear stationary wave simulations of the time-mean climatological flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 25092527.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Valdes, P. J., , and B. J. Hoskins, 1991: Nonlinear orographically forced planetary waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 48, 20892106.

  • Wang, H. L., , and M. F. Ting, 1999: Seasonal cycle of the climatological stationary waves in the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 38923919.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yasunari, A. T., , and T. Kitoh, 1991: Local and remote responses to excessive snow mass over Eurasia appearing in the northern spring and summer climate–A study with the MRI.GCM. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 69, 473487.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 16 16 3
PDF Downloads 24 24 1

Investigating the Linear and Nonlinear Stationary Wave Response to Anomalous North American Snow Cover

View More View Less
  • 1 Columbia University, New York City, New York
  • 2 Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, New York
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

Continental-scale snow cover represents a broad thermal forcing on monthly-to-intraseasonal time scales, with the potential to modify local and remote atmospheric circulation. A previous GCM study reported robust transient-eddy responses to prescribed anomalous North American (NA) snow cover. The same set of experiments also indicated a robust upper-level stationary wave response during spring, but the nature of this response was not investigated until now. Here, the authors diagnose a deep, snow-induced, tropospheric cooling over NA and hypothesize that this may represent a pathway linking snow to the stationary wave response. A nonlinear stationary wave model is shown to reproduce the GCM stationary wave response to snow more accurately than a linear model, and results confirm that diabatic cooling is the primary driver of the stationary wave response. In particular, the total nonlinear effects due to cooling, and its interactions with transient eddies and orography, are shown to be essential for faithful reproduction of the GCM response. The nonlinear model results confirm that direct effects due to transients and orography are modest. However, with interactions between forcings included, the total effects due to these terms make important contributions to the total response. Analysis of observed NA snow cover and stationary waves is qualitatively similar to the patterns generated by the GCM and linear/nonlinear stationary wave models, indicating that the snow-induced signal is not simply a modeling artifact. The diagnosis and description of a snow–stationary wave relationship adds to the understanding of stationary waves and their forcing mechanisms, and this relationship suggests that large-scale changes in the land surface state may exert considerable influence on the atmosphere over hemispheric scales and thereby contribute to climate variability.

Corresponding author address: Stefan Sobolowski, University of North Carolina—Chapel Hill, Geological Sciences, CB No. 3315, 104 South Road, Chapel Hill, NC 27516. E-mail: stefans@unc.edu

Abstract

Continental-scale snow cover represents a broad thermal forcing on monthly-to-intraseasonal time scales, with the potential to modify local and remote atmospheric circulation. A previous GCM study reported robust transient-eddy responses to prescribed anomalous North American (NA) snow cover. The same set of experiments also indicated a robust upper-level stationary wave response during spring, but the nature of this response was not investigated until now. Here, the authors diagnose a deep, snow-induced, tropospheric cooling over NA and hypothesize that this may represent a pathway linking snow to the stationary wave response. A nonlinear stationary wave model is shown to reproduce the GCM stationary wave response to snow more accurately than a linear model, and results confirm that diabatic cooling is the primary driver of the stationary wave response. In particular, the total nonlinear effects due to cooling, and its interactions with transient eddies and orography, are shown to be essential for faithful reproduction of the GCM response. The nonlinear model results confirm that direct effects due to transients and orography are modest. However, with interactions between forcings included, the total effects due to these terms make important contributions to the total response. Analysis of observed NA snow cover and stationary waves is qualitatively similar to the patterns generated by the GCM and linear/nonlinear stationary wave models, indicating that the snow-induced signal is not simply a modeling artifact. The diagnosis and description of a snow–stationary wave relationship adds to the understanding of stationary waves and their forcing mechanisms, and this relationship suggests that large-scale changes in the land surface state may exert considerable influence on the atmosphere over hemispheric scales and thereby contribute to climate variability.

Corresponding author address: Stefan Sobolowski, University of North Carolina—Chapel Hill, Geological Sciences, CB No. 3315, 104 South Road, Chapel Hill, NC 27516. E-mail: stefans@unc.edu
Save