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Deep Convection Triggering by Boundary Layer Thermals. Part II: Stochastic Triggering Parameterization for the LMDZ GCM

Nicolas RochetinLaboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Paris, France

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Jean-Yves GrandpeixLaboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Paris, France

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Catherine RioLaboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Paris, France

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Fleur CouvreuxCNRM-GAME, Météo-France and CNRS, Toulouse, France

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Abstract

This paper presents a stochastic triggering parameterization for deep convection and its implementation in the latest standard version of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique–Zoom (LMDZ) general circulation model: LMDZ5B. The derivation of the formulation of this parameterization and the justification, based on large-eddy simulation results, for the main hypothesis was proposed in Part I of this study.

Whereas the standard triggering formulation in LMDZ5B relies on the maximum vertical velocity within a mean bulk thermal, the new formulation presented here (i) considers a thermal size distribution instead of a bulk thermal, (ii) provides a statistical lifting energy at cloud base, (iii) proposes a three-step trigger (appearance of clouds, inhibition crossing, and exceeding of a cross-section threshold), and (iv) includes a stochastic component.

Here the complete implementation is presented, with its coupling to the thermal model used to treat shallow convection in LMDZ5B. The parameterization is tested over various cases in a single-column model framework. A sensitivity study to each parameter introduced is also carried out. The impact of the new triggering is then evaluated in the single-column version of LMDZ on several case studies and in full 3D simulations.

It is found that the new triggering (i) delays deep convection triggering, (ii) suppresses it over oceanic trade wind cumulus zones, (iii) increases the low-level cloudiness, and (iv) increases the convective variability. The scale-aware nature of this parameterization is also discussed.

Corresponding author address: Nicolas Rochetin, Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Boite 99, 4, place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris CEDEX 05, France. E-mail: nicolas.rochetin@lmd.jussieu.fr

Abstract

This paper presents a stochastic triggering parameterization for deep convection and its implementation in the latest standard version of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique–Zoom (LMDZ) general circulation model: LMDZ5B. The derivation of the formulation of this parameterization and the justification, based on large-eddy simulation results, for the main hypothesis was proposed in Part I of this study.

Whereas the standard triggering formulation in LMDZ5B relies on the maximum vertical velocity within a mean bulk thermal, the new formulation presented here (i) considers a thermal size distribution instead of a bulk thermal, (ii) provides a statistical lifting energy at cloud base, (iii) proposes a three-step trigger (appearance of clouds, inhibition crossing, and exceeding of a cross-section threshold), and (iv) includes a stochastic component.

Here the complete implementation is presented, with its coupling to the thermal model used to treat shallow convection in LMDZ5B. The parameterization is tested over various cases in a single-column model framework. A sensitivity study to each parameter introduced is also carried out. The impact of the new triggering is then evaluated in the single-column version of LMDZ on several case studies and in full 3D simulations.

It is found that the new triggering (i) delays deep convection triggering, (ii) suppresses it over oceanic trade wind cumulus zones, (iii) increases the low-level cloudiness, and (iv) increases the convective variability. The scale-aware nature of this parameterization is also discussed.

Corresponding author address: Nicolas Rochetin, Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Boite 99, 4, place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris CEDEX 05, France. E-mail: nicolas.rochetin@lmd.jussieu.fr
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