• Bauer, S. E., , and S. Menon, 2012: Aerosol direct, indirect, semidirect, and surface albedo effects from sector contributions based on the IPCC AR5 emissions for preindustrial and present-day conditions. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D01206, doi:10.1029/2011jd016816.

  • Bond, T. C., , and H. L. Sun, 2005: Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming? Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 59215926, doi:10.1021/es0480421.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bond, T. C., and et al. , 2013: Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 53805552, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50171.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dalsøren, S. B., , M. S. Eide, , Ø. Endresen, , A. Mjelde, , G. Gravir, , and I. S. A. Isaksen, 2009: Update on emissions and environmental impacts from the international fleet of ships: The contribution from major ship types and ports. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 21712194, doi:10.5194/acp-9-2171-2009.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Draxler, R. R., , and G. D. Hess, 1998: An overview of the HYSPLIT_4 modeling system for trajectories, description, and deposition. Aust. Meteor. Mag., 47, 295308.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eckhardt, S., , O. Hermansen, , H. Grythe, , M. Fiebig, , K. Stebel, , M. Cassiani, , A. Baecklund, , and A. Stohl, 2013: The influence of cruise ship emissions on air pollution in Svalbard—A harbinger of a more polluted Arctic? Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 84018409, doi:10.5194/acp-13-8401-2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eleftheriadis, K., , S. Vratolis, , and S. Nyeki, 2009: Aerosol black carbon in the European Arctic: Measurements at Zeppelin station, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard from 1998–2007. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L02809, doi:10.1029/2008GL035741.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hansen, A. D. A., , J. R. Turner, , and G. A. Allen, 2007: An algorithm to compensate Aethalometer data for the effects of optical shadowing and scattering. Preprints, Fifth Asian Aerosol Conf., Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Asian Aerosol Research Assembly, 119.

  • Heintzenberg, J., , and C. Leck, 1994: Seasonal variation of the atmospheric aerosol near the top of the marine boundary layer over Spitsbergen related to the Arctic sulphur cycle. Tellus, 46B, 52–67, doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.1994.00005.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hirdman, D., and et al. , 2010: Long-term trends of black carbon and sulphate aerosol in the Arctic: Changes in atmospheric transport and source region emissions. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 9351–9368, doi:10.5194/acp-10-9351-2010.

  • Huang, N. E., , and Z. Wu, 2008: A review on Hilbert-Huang transform: Method and its applications to geophysical studies. Rev. Geophys., 46, RG2006, doi:10.1029/2007RG000228.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huang, N. E., , Z. Shen, , and S. R. Long, 1998: The empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert spectrum for nonlinear and non-stationary time series analysis. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, 454, 903995, doi:10.1098/rspa.1998.0193.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huang, N. E., , Z. Shen, , and S. R. Long, 1999: A new view of nonlinear water waves: The Hilbert spectrum. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 31, 417–457, doi:10.1146/annurev.fluid.31.1.417.

  • IPCC, 2013: Climate Change: The Physical Science Basis. Cambridge University Press, 1535 pp.

  • Nyeki, S., , H. Bauer, , H. Puxbaum, , C. Dye, , K. Teinila, , R. Hillamo, , J. Ström, , and K. Eleftheriadis, 2005: Comparison of black carbon concentrations derived by filter-based light transmission and thermo-optical techniques for Arctic aerosol. Extended Abstracts, European Aerosol Conf., Ghent, Belgium, European Aerosol Assembly, 122–123.

  • Polissar, A. V., , P. K. Hopke, , P. Paatero, , Y. J. Kaufmann, , D. K. Hall, , B. A. Bodhaine, , E. G. Dutton, , and J. M. Harris, 1999: The aerosol at Barrow, Alaska: Long-term trends and source locations. Atmos. Environ., 33, 24412458, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(98)00423-3.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Quinn, P. K., and et al. , 2011: The impact of black carbon on Arctic climate. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme Tech. Rep. 4, 72 pp.

  • Sharma, S., , D. Lavoué, , H. Cachier, , L. A. Barrie, , and S. L. Gong, 2004: Long-term trends of the black carbon concentrations in the Canadian Arctic. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D15203, doi:10.1029/2003JD004331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sharma, S., , E. Andrews, , L. A. Barrie, , J. A. Ogren, , and D. Lavoué, 2006: Variations and sources of the equivalent black carbon in the high Arctic revealed by long-term observations at Alert and Barrow: 1989–2003. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D14208, doi:10.1029/2005JD006581.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sharma, S., , M. Ishizawa, , D. Chan, , D. Lavoué, , E. Andrews, , K. Eleftheriadis, , and S. Maksyutov, 2013: 16-year simulation of Arctic black carbon: Transport, source contribution, and sensitivity analysis on deposition. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 943964, doi:10.1029/2012JD017774.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stohl, A., , Z. Klimont, , S. Eckhardt, , K. Kupiainen, , V. P. Shevchenko, , V. M. Kopeikin, , and A. N. Novigatsky, 2013: Black carbon in the Arctic: The underestimated role of gas flaring and residential combustion emissions. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 88338855, doi:10.5194/acp-13-8833-2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vestreng, V., , E. Økstad, , and R. Kallenborn, 2009: Climate influencing emissions, scenarios and mitigation options at Svalbard. Klif Rep TA-2552, 52 pp. [Available online at http://www.miljodirektoratet.no/old/klif/publikasjoner/2552/ta2552.pdf.]

  • Wu, Z. H., , and N. E. Huang, 2009: Ensemble empirical mode decomposition: A noise-assisted data analysis method. Adv. Adapt. Data Anal., 1, 141, doi:10.1142/S1793536909000047.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhan, J., , and Y. Gao, 2014: Impact of summertime anthropogenic emissions on atmospheric black carbon at Ny-Åesund in the Arctic. Polar Res., 33, 21821, doi:10.3402/polar.v33.21821.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhan, J., , Y. Gao, , W. Li, , L. Chen, , H. Lin, , and Qi Lin, 2014: Effects of ship emissions on summertime aerosols at Ny-Ålesund in the Arctic. Atmos. Pollut. Res., 5, 500510, doi:10.5094/APR.2014.059.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 33 33 10
PDF Downloads 13 13 4

Increase in Aerosol Black Carbon in the 2000s over Ny-Ålesund in the Summer

View More View Less
  • 1 Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, China
  • | 2 Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, and State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry (LAPC), Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
  • | 3 Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, China
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

To investigate the concentrations, sources, and temporal variations of atmospheric black carbon (BC) in the summer Arctic, routine ground-level observations of BC by optical absorption were made in the summer from 2005 to 2008 at the Chinese Arctic “Yellow River” Station (78°55′N, 11°56′E) at Ny-Ålesund on the island of Spitsbergen in the Svalbard Archipelago. Methods of the ensemble empirical-mode decomposition analysis and back-trajectory analysis were employed to assess temporal variation embedded in the BC datasets and airmass transport patterns. The 10th-percentile and median values of BC concentrations were 7.2 and 14.6 ng m−3, respectively, and hourly average BC concentrations ranged from 2.5 to 54.6 ng m−3. A gradual increase was found by 4 ng m−3 a−1. This increase was not seen in the Zeppelin Station and it seemed to contrast with the prevalent conception of generally decreasing BC concentration since 1989 in the Arctic. Factors responsible for this increase such as changes in emissions and atmospheric transport were taken into consideration. The result indicated that BC from local emissions was mostly responsible for the observed increase from 2005 to 2008. BC temporal variation in the summer was controlled by the atmospheric circulation, which presented a significant 6–14-day variation and coherent with 1–3- and 2–5-day and longer cycle variation. Although the atmospheric circulation changes from 2005 to 2008, there was not a marked trend in long-range transportation of BC. This study suggested that local emissions might have significant implication for the regional radiative energy balance at Ny-Ålesund.

Corresponding author address: Liqi Chen, Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen Daxue Road, Xiamen, Fujian 361005, China. E-mail: chenliqi@tio.org.cn

Denotes Chemistry/Aerosol content

Abstract

To investigate the concentrations, sources, and temporal variations of atmospheric black carbon (BC) in the summer Arctic, routine ground-level observations of BC by optical absorption were made in the summer from 2005 to 2008 at the Chinese Arctic “Yellow River” Station (78°55′N, 11°56′E) at Ny-Ålesund on the island of Spitsbergen in the Svalbard Archipelago. Methods of the ensemble empirical-mode decomposition analysis and back-trajectory analysis were employed to assess temporal variation embedded in the BC datasets and airmass transport patterns. The 10th-percentile and median values of BC concentrations were 7.2 and 14.6 ng m−3, respectively, and hourly average BC concentrations ranged from 2.5 to 54.6 ng m−3. A gradual increase was found by 4 ng m−3 a−1. This increase was not seen in the Zeppelin Station and it seemed to contrast with the prevalent conception of generally decreasing BC concentration since 1989 in the Arctic. Factors responsible for this increase such as changes in emissions and atmospheric transport were taken into consideration. The result indicated that BC from local emissions was mostly responsible for the observed increase from 2005 to 2008. BC temporal variation in the summer was controlled by the atmospheric circulation, which presented a significant 6–14-day variation and coherent with 1–3- and 2–5-day and longer cycle variation. Although the atmospheric circulation changes from 2005 to 2008, there was not a marked trend in long-range transportation of BC. This study suggested that local emissions might have significant implication for the regional radiative energy balance at Ny-Ålesund.

Corresponding author address: Liqi Chen, Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen Daxue Road, Xiamen, Fujian 361005, China. E-mail: chenliqi@tio.org.cn

Denotes Chemistry/Aerosol content

Save