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An Idealized Numerical Simulation Investigation of the Effects of Surface Drag on the Development of Near-Surface Vertical Vorticity in Supercell Thunderstorms

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  • 1 Department of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania
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Abstract

Idealized simulations are used to investigate the contributions of frictionally generated horizontal vorticity to the development of near-surface vertical vorticity in supercell storms. Of interest is the relative importance of barotropic vorticity (vorticity present in the prestorm environment), baroclinic vorticity (vorticity that is principally generated by horizontal buoyancy gradients), and viscous vorticity (vorticity that originates from the subgrid-scale turbulence parameterization, wherein the effects of surface drag reside), all of which can be advected, tilted, and stretched. Equations for the three partial vorticities are integrated in parallel with the model. The partial vorticity calculations are complemented by analyses of circulation following material circuits, which are often able to be carried out further in time because they are less susceptible to explosive error growth.

Near-surface mesocyclones that develop prior to cold-pool formation (this only happens when the environmental vorticity is crosswise near the surface) are dominated by only barotropic vertical vorticity when the lower boundary is free slip, but both barotropic and viscous vertical vorticity when surface drag is included. Baroclinic vertical vorticity grows large once a cold pool is established, regardless of the lower boundary condition and, in fact, dominates at the time the vortices are most intense in all but one simulation (a simulation dominated early by a barotropic mode of vortex genesis that may not be relevant to real convective storms).

Corresponding author address: Dr. Paul Markowski, Department of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania State University, 503 Walker Building, University Park, PA 16802. E-mail: pmarkowski@psu.edu

Abstract

Idealized simulations are used to investigate the contributions of frictionally generated horizontal vorticity to the development of near-surface vertical vorticity in supercell storms. Of interest is the relative importance of barotropic vorticity (vorticity present in the prestorm environment), baroclinic vorticity (vorticity that is principally generated by horizontal buoyancy gradients), and viscous vorticity (vorticity that originates from the subgrid-scale turbulence parameterization, wherein the effects of surface drag reside), all of which can be advected, tilted, and stretched. Equations for the three partial vorticities are integrated in parallel with the model. The partial vorticity calculations are complemented by analyses of circulation following material circuits, which are often able to be carried out further in time because they are less susceptible to explosive error growth.

Near-surface mesocyclones that develop prior to cold-pool formation (this only happens when the environmental vorticity is crosswise near the surface) are dominated by only barotropic vertical vorticity when the lower boundary is free slip, but both barotropic and viscous vertical vorticity when surface drag is included. Baroclinic vertical vorticity grows large once a cold pool is established, regardless of the lower boundary condition and, in fact, dominates at the time the vortices are most intense in all but one simulation (a simulation dominated early by a barotropic mode of vortex genesis that may not be relevant to real convective storms).

Corresponding author address: Dr. Paul Markowski, Department of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania State University, 503 Walker Building, University Park, PA 16802. E-mail: pmarkowski@psu.edu
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