Formation and Maintenance of a Long-Lived Taiwan Rainband during 1–3 March 2003

Cheng-Ku Yu Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

Search for other papers by Cheng-Ku Yu in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
and
Che-Yu Lin Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Taiwan University, and Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan

Search for other papers by Che-Yu Lin in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

Taiwan rainbands (TRs), defined here as convective lines, which form off the mountainous eastern coast of Taiwan under weakly synoptically forced weather conditions, are a well-known mesoscale phenomenon, but their formative processes remain the subject of debate. This study uses surface and radar observations within the coastal zone of eastern Taiwan and NCEP reanalysis data to document a long-lived TR with a lifetime of ~36 h during 1–3 March 2003 to advance the current general understanding of mechanisms responsible for the TR’s formation and maintenance. Detailed analyses indicate that the rainband was initiated by convergence that was produced as low-level environmental northeasterly/easterly onshore flow encountered topographically blocked northerlies that developed nearshore. The northerly blocked flow was observed to weaken and subsequently dissipate because of changing synoptic pressure patterns that caused prevailing southeasterlies/southerlies at low levels. However, colder nearshore air that resulted from the combined effects of orographic blocking, the evaporation of the TR’s precipitation, and radiative cooling over coastal land continued to persist and acted to provide a continuing source of lifting for the subsequent maintenance of moist convection. Temporal variations in the precipitation intensity of the studied TR were also shown to be consistent with the theoretical prediction of the interaction between the cold pool and ambient vertical shear. This study suggests that multiple precipitation mechanisms, which involve interactions of diurnally, topographically, and convectively generated circulations along the mountainous coast, may operate and contribute to the longevity of a TR event under suitable circumstances, such as the rapidly evolving synoptic flow observed in the present case.

© 2017 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author e-mail: Professor Cheng-Ku Yu, yuku@ntu.edu.tw

Abstract

Taiwan rainbands (TRs), defined here as convective lines, which form off the mountainous eastern coast of Taiwan under weakly synoptically forced weather conditions, are a well-known mesoscale phenomenon, but their formative processes remain the subject of debate. This study uses surface and radar observations within the coastal zone of eastern Taiwan and NCEP reanalysis data to document a long-lived TR with a lifetime of ~36 h during 1–3 March 2003 to advance the current general understanding of mechanisms responsible for the TR’s formation and maintenance. Detailed analyses indicate that the rainband was initiated by convergence that was produced as low-level environmental northeasterly/easterly onshore flow encountered topographically blocked northerlies that developed nearshore. The northerly blocked flow was observed to weaken and subsequently dissipate because of changing synoptic pressure patterns that caused prevailing southeasterlies/southerlies at low levels. However, colder nearshore air that resulted from the combined effects of orographic blocking, the evaporation of the TR’s precipitation, and radiative cooling over coastal land continued to persist and acted to provide a continuing source of lifting for the subsequent maintenance of moist convection. Temporal variations in the precipitation intensity of the studied TR were also shown to be consistent with the theoretical prediction of the interaction between the cold pool and ambient vertical shear. This study suggests that multiple precipitation mechanisms, which involve interactions of diurnally, topographically, and convectively generated circulations along the mountainous coast, may operate and contribute to the longevity of a TR event under suitable circumstances, such as the rapidly evolving synoptic flow observed in the present case.

© 2017 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author e-mail: Professor Cheng-Ku Yu, yuku@ntu.edu.tw
Save
  • Alpers, W., J.-P. Chen, I.-I. Lin, and C.-C. Lien, 2007: Atmospheric fronts along the east coast of Taiwan studied by ERS synthetic aperture radar images. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 922937, doi:10.1175/JAS3863.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alpers, W., J.-P. Chen, C.-J. Pi, and I.-I. Lin, 2010: On the origin of atmospheric frontal lines off the east coast of Taiwan observed on spaceborne synthetic aperture radar images. Mon. Wea. Rev., 138, 475496, doi:10.1175/2009MWR2987.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barrett, B. S., R. D. Garreaud, and M. Falvey, 2009: Effect of the Andes Cordillera on precipitation from a midlatitude cold front. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 30923109, doi:10.1175/2009MWR2881.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bell, G. D., and L. F. Bosart, 1988: Appalachian cold-air damming. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116, 137161, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1988)116<0137:ACAD>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, C.-C., D. R. Durran, and G. J. Hakim, 2005: Mountain-wave momentum flux in an evolving synoptic-scale flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 32133231, doi:10.1175/JAS3543.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, G. T.-J., 1983: Observational aspects of the Mei-Yu phenomenon in subtropical China. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 61, 306312.

  • Chen, H.-T., X.-H. Yan, P.-T. Shaw, and Q. Zheng, 1996: A numerical simulation of wind stress and topographic effects on the Kuroshio current path near Taiwan. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26, 17691802, doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1996)026<1769:ANSOWS>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Colle, B. A., and S. E. Yuter, 2007: The impact of coastal boundaries and small hills on the precipitation distribution across southern Connecticut and Long Island, NY. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135, 933954, doi:10.1175/MWR3320.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Doyle, J. D., 1997: The influence of mesoscale orography on a coastal jet and rainband. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 14651488, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1997)125<1465:TIOMOO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Garrett, A. J., 1980: Orographic cloud over the eastern slopes of Mauna Loa volcano, Hawaii, related to insolation and wind. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108, 931941, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1980)108<0931:OCOTES>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grossman, R. L., and D. R. Durran, 1984: Interaction of low-level flow with the western Ghat Mountains and offshore convection in the summer monsoon. Mon. Wea. Rev., 112, 652672, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1984)112<0652:IOLLFW>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hassim, M. E. E., T. P. Lane, and W. W. Grabowski, 2016: The diurnal cycle of rainfall over New Guinea in convection-permitting WRF simulations. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 161175, doi:10.5194/acp-16-161-2016.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Houze, R. A., Jr., S. G. Geotis, F. D. Marks Jr., and A. K. West, 1981: Winter monsoon convection in the vicinity of north Borneo. Part I: Structure and time variation of the clouds and precipitation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 15951614, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1981)109<1595:WMCITV>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johns, W. E., T. N. Lee, D. Zhang, and R. Zantopp, 2001: The Kuroshio east of Taiwan: Moored transport observations from the WOCE PCM-1 array. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 10311053, doi:10.1175/1520-0485(2001)031<1031:TKEOTM>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnson, R. H., and J. F. Bresch, 1991: Diagnosed characteristics of precipitation systems over Taiwan during the May–June 1987 TAMEX. Mon. Wea. Rev., 119, 25402557, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1991)119<2540:DCOPSO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Large, W. G., and S. Pond, 1982: Sensible and latent heat flux measurements over the ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 12, 464482, doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1982)012<0464:SALHFM>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lawrence, T. R., M. C. Krause, C. E. Craven, L. K. Morrison, J. A. L. Thomson, W. C. Cliff, and R. M. Huffaker, 1975: A laser Doppler system for the remote sensing of boundary layer winds in clear air conditions. Preprints, 16th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Houston, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 320–327.

  • Liberti, G. L., F. Cheruy, and M. Desbois, 2001: Land effect on the diurnal cycle of clouds over the TOGA COARE area, as observed from GMS IR data. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 15001517, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(2001)129<1500:LEOTDC>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mapes, B. E., T. T. Warner, and M. Xu, 2003: Diurnal patterns of rainfall in northwestern South America. Part III: Diurnal gravity waves and nocturnal convection offshore. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 830844, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(2003)131<0830:DPORIN>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Neiman, P. J., P. O. G. Persson, F. M. Ralph, D. P. Jorgensen, A. B. White, and D. E. Kingsmill, 2004: Modification of fronts and precipitation by coastal blocking during an intense landfalling winter storm in southern California: Observations during CALJET. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132, 242273, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(2004)132<0242:MOFAPB>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nitani, H., 1972: Beginning of the Kuroshio. The Kuroshio, H. Stommel and K. Yoshida, Eds., University of Washington Press, 129–163.

  • Overland, J. E., 1984: Scale analysis of marine winds in straits and along mountainous coasts. Mon. Wea. Rev., 112, 25302534, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1984)112<2530:SAOMWI>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Overland, J. E., and N. A. Bond, 1993: The influence of coastal orography: The Yakutat storm. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121, 13881397, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1993)121<1388:TIOCOT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Overland, J. E., and N. A. Bond, 1995: Observations and scale analysis of coastal wind jets. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 29342941, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1995)123<2934:OASAOC>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parish, T. R., 1982: Barrier winds along the Sierra Nevada Mountains. J. Appl. Meteor., 21, 925930, doi:10.1175/1520-0450(1982)021<0925:BWATSN>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pierrehumbert, R. T., and B. Wyman, 1985: Upstream effects of mesoscale mountains. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 9771003, doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1985)042<0977:UEOMM>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reeves, H. D., and Y.-L. Lin, 2006: Effect of stable layer formation over the Po Valley on the development of convection during MAP IOP-8. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 25672584, doi:10.1175/JAS3759.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rotunno, R., and R. A. Houze Jr., 2007: Lessons on orographic precipitation from the Mesoscale Alpine Programme. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 133, 811830, doi:10.1002/qj.67.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rotunno, R., J. B. Klemp, and M. L. Weisman, 1988: A theory for strong, long-lived squall lines. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 463485, doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1988)045<0463:ATFSLL>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schoenberger, L. M., 1984: Doppler radar observation of a land-breeze cold front. Mon. Wea. Rev., 112, 24552464, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1984)112<2455:DROOAL>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, R. B., 1979: The influence of mountains on the atmosphere. Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 21, Academic Press, 87–230.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, R. B., 1989: Mountain-induced stagnation points in hydrostatic flow. Tellus, 41A, 270274, doi:10.1111/j.1600-0870.1989.tb00381.x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smolarkiewicz, P. K., R. M. Rasmussen, and T. L. Clark, 1988: On the dynamics of Hawaiian cloud bands: Island forcing. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 18721905, doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1988)045<1872:OTDOHC>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strauch, R. G., and W. R. Moninger, 1978: Radar measurements of wind shear and wind profiles for air safety. Preprints, 18th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Atlanta, GA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 432–436.

  • Sun, W. Y., and J.-D. Chern, 1993: Diurnal variation of lee vortices in Taiwan and the surrounding area. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 34043430, doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1993)050<3404:DVOLVI>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sun, W. Y., J.-D. Chern, C.-C. Wu, and W.-R. Hsu, 1991: Numerical simulation of mesoscale circulation in Taiwan and surrounding area. Mon. Wea. Rev., 119, 25582573, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1991)119<2558:NSOMCI>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Viale, M., R. A. Houze Jr., and K. L. Rasmussen, 2013: Upstream orographic enhancement of a narrow cold-frontal rainband approaching the Andes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 141, 17081730, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-12-00138.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vincent, C. L., and T. P. Lane, 2016: Evolution of the diurnal precipitation cycle with the passage of a Madden–Julian oscillation event through the Maritime Continent. Mon. Wea. Rev., 144, 19832005, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-15-0326.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wakimoto, R. M., 1982: The life cycle of thunderstorm gust fronts as viewed with Doppler radar and rawinsonde data. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110, 10601082, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1982)110<1060:TLCOTG>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, C.-C., and W.-M. Huang, 2009: High-resolution simulation of a nocturnal narrow convective line off the southeastern coast of Taiwan in the Mei-yu season. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L06815, doi:10.1029/2008GL037147.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xu, W., E. J. Zipser, Y.-L. Chen, C. Liu, Y.-C. Liou, W.-C. Lee, and B. J.-D. Jou, 2012: An orography-associated extreme rainfall event during TiMREX: Initiation, storm evolution, and maintenance. Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 25552574, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-11-00208.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, C.-K., and B. F. Smull, 2000: Airborne Doppler observations of a landfalling cold front upstream of steep coastal orography. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 15771603, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(2000)128<1577:ADOOAL>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, C.-K., and N. A. Bond, 2002: Airborne Doppler observations of a cold front in the vicinity of Vancouver Island. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130, 26922708, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(2002)130<2692:ADOOAC>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, C.-K., and B. J.-D. Jou, 2005: Radar observations of the diurnally forced offshore convective lines along the southeastern coast of Taiwan. Mon. Wea. Rev., 133, 16131636, doi:10.1175/MWR2937.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, C.-K., and C.-Y. Lin, 2008: Statistical location and timing of the convective lines off the mountainous coast of southeastern Taiwan from long-term radar observations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 50775094, doi:10.1175/2008MWR2555.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, C.-K., and Y.-H. Hsieh, 2009: Formation of the convective lines off the mountainous coast of southeastern Taiwan: A case study of 3 January 2004. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 30723091, doi:10.1175/2009MWR2867.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, C.-K., B. J.-D. Jou, and D. P. Jorgensen, 2001: Retrieved thermodynamic structure of a subtropical, orographically influenced, quasi-stationary convective line. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 10991116, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(2001)129<1099:RTSOAS>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, C.-K., D. P. Jorgensen, and F. Roux, 2007: Multiple precipitation mechanisms over mountains observed by airborne Doppler radar during MAP IOP5. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135, 955984, doi:10.1175/MWR3318.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 590 146 5
PDF Downloads 416 113 0